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(searched for: doi:10.1016/s0959-8022(99)00009-0)
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Tonja Blom, , Hamid Kazeroony
SA Journal of Human Resource Management, Volume 17; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v17i0.1118

Abstract:
Orientation: Diversity management, focusing on developing and appreciating diverse ideas and building relations among diverse employees, and new electronic human resource management (e-HRM) approaches to employees, often leave employees feeling disrespected and indignant. Thus, instead of human resource practitioners, harnessing the strategic role of e-HRM towards value creation for people and organisation, e-HRM has taken a dehumanising turn.Research purpose: This research questioned how technological changes affecting e-HRM could optimise and enable diversity.Motivation for the study: Current literature does not adequately address this e-HRM dilemma impacting on HRM.Research approach/design and method: A qualitative exploratory case study was used to determine how and to what extent the application of e-HRM technology implementation impacted on diversity management. The human niche and ecological model theories help explain the nature of employees’ interactional relationships and coping mechanisms when intervening factors such as e-HRM are introduced respectively.Main findings: The research revealed disconnectedness between e-HRM, individuals and groups, affecting efficiency. Further research is required to improve humanistic approaches for e-HRM implementations.Practical/managerial implications: Application of human niche theory may guide a more participative approach from the onset. Leaders and managers who follow a pure transactional approach may fuel employee isolationism and hamper diversity management through technology in e-HRM.Contribution/value-add: Our findings provide insight into the unintended consequences of diversity. We indicated how e-HRM systems can lead to relational breakdown in a developing country context. Technology should be integrated in managing diversity, and not just focused on operational efficiencies.
, Gro Bjerknes, Julie Fisher, Tomas Jensen
Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organisation pp 187-206; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-22993-1_11

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Federico Cabitza, , Aurelio Ravarini
Behaviour & Information Technology, Volume 39, pp 5-26; https://doi.org/10.1080/0144929x.2019.1634761

Abstract:
In this work, we provide an overview of contemporary perspectives of design that may challenge the traditional design of IT and socio-technical systems. Our starting metaphor is that of ‘wicked problems’, where the singularity, incompleteness and intrinsic uncertainty of real world settings foregrounds how the worldview that designers offer to practitioners may be optimal in theory but useless in practice. To go beyond traditional notions of design and designer, we intercepted insights coming from minoritarian voices in both theoretic and practice-based design fields. ‘De-design’ is a term we coined to encompass this wide spectrum of approaches that make more resilient and sustainable information artifact, de-emphasize design as a theoretical construct, and reconsider practice as the leading principle of digital innovation. This paper is a narrative review of voices in an extensive array of fields: from Information Systems to Human-Computer Interaction, from End-User Development to Critical Design, from Software Design to Design Studies. Our contribution retraces the motivational roots of de-design and tries to characterise de-design by filling relational gaps between disparate approaches and by bringing them back to IT and socio-technical design, to make digital artifacts sustainable in all of the new environmental, organisational and cultural spaces near to come.
Published: 5 June 2017
Information Technology & People, Volume 30, pp 396-423; https://doi.org/10.1108/itp-08-2013-0151

Abstract:
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to use translation theory to develop a framework (called FTRA) that explains how companies adopt agile methods in a discourse of fragmentation and articulation. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative multiple case study of six firms using the Scrum agile methodology. Data were collected using mixed methods and analyzed using three progressive coding cycles and analytic induction. Findings In practice, people translate agile methods for local settings by choosing fragments of the method and continuously re-articulating them according to the exact needs of the time and place. The authors coded the fragments as technological rules that share relationships within a framework spanning two dimensions: static-dynamic and actor-artifact. Research limitations/implications For consistency, the six cases intentionally represent one instance of agile methodology (Scrum). This limits the confidence that the framework is suitable for other kinds of methodologies. Practical implications The FTRA framework and the technological rules are promising for use in practice as a prescriptive or even normative frame for governing methodology adaptation. Social implications Framing agile adaption with translation theory surfaces how the discourse between translocal (global) and local practice yields the social construction of agile methods. This result contrasts the more functionalist engineering perspective and privileges changeability over performance. Originality/value The use of translation theory and the FTRA framework to explain how agile adaptation (in particular Scrum) emerges continuously in a process where method fragments are articulated and re-articulated to momentarily suit the local setting. Complete agility that rapidly and elegantly changes its own environment must, as a concomitant, rapidly and elegantly change itself. This understanding also elaborates translation theory by explaining how the articulation and re-articulation of ideas embody the means by which ideas travel in practice.
, Cecilia Aragon, James Fogarty, Charlotte P. Lee,
Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), Volume 26, pp 663-691; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10606-017-9285-x

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, , Brian Leavy
Proceedings of the International Conference on Software and Systems Process pp 86-90; https://doi.org/10.1145/2904354.2904369

Abstract:
The research literature informs us that a software development process should be appropriate to its software development context but there is an absence of explicit guidance on how to achieve the harmonization of a development process with the corresponding situational context. Whilst this notion of harmonization may be intuitively appealing, in this paper we argue that interaction between a software development process and its situational context is an instance of a complex system. In Complexity Theory, complex systems consist of multiple agents that interact in a multitude of diverse ways, with system outcomes being non-deterministic. Complex systems are therefore noted to be difficult to control, such as is the case with many software development endeavors. If the interaction of software processes with situational contexts is representative of a complex system, then we should not be surprised that the task of software development has proven so resistant to attempts to produce generalized software processes. We should also seek to ameliorate the software development challenge through the adoption of techniques recommended for use in managing complex systems, not as a replacement for the many software process approaches presently in use, but as complement that can aid the task of process definition and evolution
Journal of Further and Higher Education, Volume 41, pp 773-784; https://doi.org/10.1080/0309877x.2016.1177171

Abstract:
Student attrition continues to be a significant and costly challenge for higher education institutions across the globe. In Australia, universities cite the importance of addressing student attrition through strategic statements and policy documents, and expend time and resources on the problem. Despite vast expenditures, they have made little impact on student attrition, which continues to negatively impact reputation and revenue. Using a regional Australian university as a case study, this paper analyses a student exit survey to identify the complex and inter-related array of factors that contribute to student attrition. It was found that attrition would be better conceptualised as a wicked problem, which is one that cannot be strategically addressed using traditional approaches to problem-solving. The practical implications of these findings reinforce that current approaches to attrition are likely to fail. Therefore, the wicked nature of the attrition problem needs to be taken into account when developing strategies or policies within higher education.
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Volume 41, pp 1169-1183; https://doi.org/10.1109/tse.2015.2467388

Abstract:
Software development is a complex socio-technical activity, with the result that software development organisations need to establish and maintain robust software development processes. While much debate exists regarding the effectiveness of various software development approaches, no single approach is perfectly suited to all settings and no setting is unchanging. The capability to adapt the software process is therefore essential to sustaining an optimal software process. We designed an exploratory study to concurrently examine software process adaptive capability and organisational performance in 15 software development organisations, finding that companies with greater software process adaptive capability are shown to also experience greater business success. While our exploratory study of the complex relationship between these phenomena is limited in some respects, the findings indicate that software process adaptive capability may be worthy of further integration into software process engineering techniques. Software process adaptive capability may be an important organisational strength when deriving competitive advantage, and those responsible for the creation and evolution of software process models and methodologies may want to focus some of their future efforts in this area.
Kobus Van Aswegen, ,
Published: 11 November 2014
Interactive Technology and Smart Education, Volume 11, pp 238-253; https://doi.org/10.1108/itse-09-2014-0026

Abstract:
Purpose – The purpose of this study was to determine if Systems Development Methodologies (SDMs) are being utilised effectively in the development of Learning Management Systems (LMSs) in South Africa. With e-learning being a critical component of modern educational systems, it has become essential to ensure that LMSs of a high standard are being developed. In the field of SDMs, much research has been done and the value of SDMs is proven and documented. To enhance the chances of developing LMSs of outstanding quality, it is crucial that SDMs are applied efficiently, as they can have a significant impact on the development process. Design/methodology/approach – A positivistic research approach was followed. By utilising a survey as the main research method, quantitative data were generated. By statistically analysing the dataset, meaningful results were obtained. Findings – This study shed some light on how LMS procurement and development is being done in South Africa and revealed that the use of open-source systems currently exceeds the use of proprietary systems. The results of the research showed that SDMs (e.g. Rapid Application Development) are being used effectively in the development of e-learning systems. Strong relationships exist between many of the SDM factors identified (e.g. performance expectancy and the perceived support of the methodology) and the quality and productivity of the development process. This, in turn, has a strong influence on the impact SDMs have on the quality of LMSs. Originality/value – The study made a contribution to the discipline of information systems and, more specifically, LMSs, by providing insights with regard to the factors affecting the use and effectiveness of SDMs in developing LMSs. As far as could be ascertained, this study generated the first empirical data on the procurement and development of LMSs in South Africa.
Ardhendu Mandal, S. C. Pal
Innovations in Systems and Software Engineering, Volume 11, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11334-014-0239-x

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Nathan Lakew
Published: 1 January 2014
by 10.1007
Communications in Computer and Information Science pp 123-134; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-13936-4_11

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Richard Baskerville, Jan Pries-Heje
Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences pp 279-294; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-38862-0_17

Abstract:
Agile methods continue their growth in popularity. This spreading usage increases the need for adapting agile approaches to specific organizations. Hence, we investigate how system developers engage in the evolution of both agile systems and agile methods in practice. We study adaptation of the agile method Scrum in six organizations. Based on this study we design a framework explaining how agile methods, and in particular Scrum, are constantly articulated and re-articulated when diffused in practice. This framework includes a two-by-two dimensional grouping that includes three classes of fragments: Objects, Organization, and Process. The fourth class involves a discursive articulation that occurs on the same logical plane as the fragments. Unlike method engineering, the discourse is an inseparable part of the methodology itself, not a separate “meta” method.
Michel Thomsen, Maria Åkesson
Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences pp 467-480; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-38862-0_29

Abstract:
Information systems development (ISD) and innovation is a complex and challenging endeavor. In this paper we inquire into the process of ISD and innovation to shed light on the ambiguous nature of such processes. This was done in an interpretive study of 10 governmental ISD projects where 14 interviews with key persons were conducted. In addition 11 interviews with senior IT consultants were conducted. Based on this study we propose an analytical lens to understand ISD and innovation. This lens is based on a metaphor grounded in the empirical material. This metaphor, fragmentation, mediates a deeper understanding of ISD and innovation regarding three aspects of complexity: knowledge, culture and discourse, and time and space.
Dana Edberg, Polina Ivanova, William Kuechler
Journal of Management Information Systems, Volume 28, pp 271-304; https://doi.org/10.2753/mis0742-1222280410

Mike Chiasson, Elizabeth Davidson
European Journal of Information Systems, Volume 21, pp 192-206; https://doi.org/10.1057/ejis.2011.55

Abstract:
Deconstruction, a post-structuralist approach to examining language in texts, is most often associated with the philosophical works of Jacque Derrida. After a flurry of interest among management and information systems (IS) scholars, this qualitative approach to exploring organizational texts has received little attention in the IS literature. We suggest deconstruction could help our field explore how IS texts describe the social and technical past and also prescribe and circumscribe the future of IS practice. Thus, we suggest the IS field reconsider how deconstruction might contribute to language-based approaches in IS research and practice. In this paper, we discuss deconstruction in light of the linguistic turn in social science research and the support and criticism for its use in management research. We consider IS research publications that have employed deconstruction explicitly, examine a well-known IS publication as an example of the deconstruction of IS texts, and suggest ways in which deconstruction might be applied to various genres of IS texts to inspire insights and creativity. To conclude, we highlight considerations for researchers who might adopt this approach and for the editors and reviewers who would evaluate qualitative research papers that employ deconstruction.
Wanda Opprecht, Michel Leonard
2011 IEEE 13th Conference on Commerce and Enterprise Computing pp 66-73; https://doi.org/10.1109/cec.2011.25

Abstract:
The main challenge for an enterprise Information System (IS) is to be able to evolve in a sustainable way, that is, to be capable to adapt itself to the new environment, to dynamically integrate the ever-changing conditions of this environment, and to be sustainably coherent with the evolving challenges. Another important challenge for an IS is to support the enterprise activities, particularly its transversal businesses and processes and especially the activities that create value for the enterprise. In this context, we consider the idea that initiatives could play a prominent role in the IS evolution process, and that they could be considered as an opportunity for an IS to sustainably evolve, to support the enterprise transversal and value-creating activities and to be part of the IS steering methods. In this paper, we define the notion of initiative and we propose an approach for the collaborative engineering of initiatives based on an interoperability frame of reference.
Business, Technological, and Social Dimensions of Computer Games pp 220-236; https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-60960-567-4.ch014

Abstract:
There is little research into the emotional dimension of creative industry personnel, such as computer game designers, and how emotions relate to their creative practices and work-related events. Such socioemotional work is the focus of this chapter. There is a practice-centered relevance to this topic too – it is reported that there exists a poor quality of life in many global game studios. Given our deficient knowledge of emotions in computer game development, and the practical resonance of this topic, our key research question is: What emotions, creative practices and work-related events characterize emotional journeys in computer game design teams, and how do these characteristics inter-relate? To explore and answer this research question, we draw on an in-depth field study of a computer games studio in Singapore. The chapter offers a theory of emotion-mediated improvisation as a coping model for the tumultuous emotional journeys that game developers endure.
Empirical Software Engineering, Volume 16, pp 460-486; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10664-011-9157-9

Abstract:
When analyzing data elicited using the “war stories” technique, previously introduced by Lutters and Seaman (Inf Softw Technol 49(6):576–587, 2007), we encountered unexpected challenges in applying standard qualitative analysis techniques. After reviewing the literature on stories and storytelling, we realized that a richer analysis would be possible if we accorded more respect to the data’s structure and nature as stories, rather than treating our participants’ utterances simply as textual data. We report on five lessons learned regarding how we can better analyze war stories as stories: 1) war stories tend to be about exceptional situations; 2) war stories tend to be diverse and resistant to being combined into a single grand narrative; 3) the humanities can be a valuable resource for analyzing war stories; 4) war stories are not just text, they are also performances; and 5) war stories are not just data, they are also instructive and evocative.
Jill Owen,
2011 44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1109/hicss.2011.42

Abstract:
The sociotechnical nature of ISD projects has driven the shift in focus from product delivery to facilitating organizational change. These projects are operating in an unstructured environment where they are becoming more complex in terms of technology, the interrelationships with stakeholders, emerging scope and organizational expectations. The projects are more strategic but also address a broader social dimension. The management of this complexity requires knowledge processes such as learning, sensemaking and reflective practice as well as drawing on practitioners' knowledge and experience. This paper conceptualizes these projects as value creating projects rather than being focused on a tangible product or artifact. A study of the rollout of an information system in an Australian Government Department that used the project as a vehicle for organizational change and value creation for the organization is presented. Through this empirical study it demonstrates the need to expand the repertoire of project management methods, processes, techniques and tools to deal with this complexity aligning with the 'Rethinking Project Management' (RPM) agenda.
Nandish V. Patel, Tillal Eldabi, Tariq M. Khan
Journal of Enterprise Information Management, Volume 23, pp 521-537; https://doi.org/10.1108/17410391011061799

Abstract:
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the problem of designing artificial complex adaptive systems, like information systems and organisations, by developing a proof-of-concept conceptual proto-agent model. Design/methodology/approach – The paper develops an exploratory proto-agent model and evaluates its suitability for implementation as agent-based simulation. Findings – The paper focuses on understanding the effect of emergence when designing artificial complex adaptive systems and produces a proto-agent model that identified agents and their behavioural rules for modelling. Practical implications – In deferred action, agents act in emergent organisation to achieve predetermined goals. Since emergence cannot be predicted, information systems and organisation design approaches that cater for emergent organisation are required. Originality/value – The deferred action construct is a synthesis of planned approaches and contingency approaches to design information systems. It recognises the effect of emergence on information systems.
Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, Volume 24, pp 837-850; https://doi.org/10.1002/smr.511

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Journal of Information Technology Case and Application Research, Volume 11, pp 30-59; https://doi.org/10.1080/15228053.2009.10856170

Abstract:
Recently, the concept and the role of improvisation in information systems development (ISD) have gained some interest. There are however not many studies that investigate how and when and with what effects improvisation occurs in ISD practice. We provide such a study. For this purpose we develop an analytical framework, which combines a feature-based view of the phenomenon in terms of its triggers, conditions, influencing factors and outcomes with a reflexive perspective, which emphasises the course of an improvisation in terms of the improvisers’ past experience, their motives, and their expectations of the future. The two perspectives complement each other and explain how improvisation contributes to the progress and completion of ISD projects. In particular, the framework allows an analysis of both the positive, but even more importantly, the negative outcomes and their consequences for improvisations and puts an emphasis on the hidden - because-of - motives for improvisation. Following the research approach of engaged scholarship we apply the framework to a case study of an ISD project in a large Danish software company. We use Actor Network Theory (ANT) to create a case narrative with detailed empirical evidence that shows that improvisation is an important driver in ISD practice. We analyse the project in terms of the improvisations which we identify and discuss 6 significant improvisations and their impact on the course of the project and its outcome. We also examine some implications of our findings for practice and research. In doing so we demonstrate the usefulness of our framework and increase the understanding of the role and effect of improvisation on ISD practice.
2009 International Conference on Management and Service Science pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.1109/icmss.2009.5301757

Abstract:
The decision of which Web development method to choose, and how that method is enacted for a particular project, is subject to the influence of a number of factors. This paper looks specifically at external contextual factors which may potentially effect the behavior of the development team. The findings of an empirically-grounded analysis of a field study of Web developers in Ireland is presented.
Stefan Cronholm
Information Systems Development pp 913-921; https://doi.org/10.1007/b137171_96

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, Hans-Kristian Jørgensen, Casper Pedersen, Michael Sinnet, Sameen Rab
Published: 14 September 2008
Information Systems Development pp 431-446; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-68772-8_33

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