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(searched for: doi:10.1016/s0924-4247(02)00401-6)
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, R.H. Plaut
International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics, Volume 129; doi:10.1016/j.ijnonlinmec.2020.103641

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, Zhenmin Chen, Lirong Cheng, Sailong Wu, Alberto Pepe, Xin Tu,
Published: 1 March 2021
Optics Communications, Volume 482; doi:10.1016/j.optcom.2020.126562

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 30 June 2019
Micromachines, Volume 10; doi:10.3390/mi10070435

Abstract:
While 3-D microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) allow switching between a large number of ports in optical telecommunication networks, the development of such systems often suffers from design, fabrication and packaging constraints due to the complex structures, the wafer bonding processes involved, and the tight alignment tolerances between different components. In this work, we present a 2-D translational MEMS platform capable of highly efficient planar optical switching through integration with silicon nitride (SiN) based optical waveguides. The discrete lateral displacement provided by simple parallel plate actuators on opposite sides of the central platform enables switching between different input and output waveguides. The proposed structure can displace the central platform by 3.37 µm in two directions at an actuation voltage of 65 V. Additionally, the parallel plate actuator designed for closing completely the 4.26 µm air gap between the fixed and moving waveguides operates at just 50 V. Eigenmode expansion analysis shows over 99% butt-coupling efficiency the between the SiN waveguides when the gap is closed. Also, 2.5 finite-difference time-domain analysis demonstrates zero cross talk between two parallel SiN waveguides across the length of the platform for a 3.5 µm separation between adjacent waveguides enabling multiple waveguide configuration onto the platform. Different MEMS designs were simulated using static structural analysis in ANSYS. These designs were fabricated with a custom process by AEPONYX Inc. (Montreal, QC, Canada) and through the PiezoMUMPs process of MEMSCAP (Durham, NC, USA).
Payam Kheirkhahan
2018 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT) pp 1345-1349; doi:10.1109/icit.2018.8352374

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Kai Gao, Honglie Shen, Youwen Liu, Quntao Tang, Ye Jiang, Wangyang Yang, Yufang Li, Chunlai Huang
Published: 15 December 2017
Materials Research Express, Volume 5; doi:10.1088/2053-1591/aaa1fb

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Naghmeh M. Bandari, Roozbeh Ahmadi, Amir Hooshiar, Javad Dargahi, Muthukumaran Packirisamy
Journal of Biomedical Optics, Volume 22, pp 077002-077002; doi:10.1117/1.jbo.22.7.077002

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Jorge Correa, Bonjin Koo, Placid Ferreira
Published: 1 October 2016
Precision Engineering, Volume 46, pp 135-146; doi:10.1016/j.precisioneng.2016.04.009

, Ming Qin
Published: 16 June 2016
Microsystem Technologies, Volume 23, pp 2727-2738; doi:10.1007/s00542-016-3014-0

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Chunhua Cai, Di Hua, Ming Qin
Published: 22 April 2016
MATEC Web of Conferences, Volume 54; doi:10.1051/matecconf/20165412003

Abstract:
Two different kinds of bulk-Si comb-drive actuators are designed in this work: initial overlap comb-drive actuator and non-initial overlap comb-drive actuator. They are fabricated by a simple post-CMOS bulk micromachining process. A cascade folded beam is designed to achieve large displacement at low driving voltages. And non-initial overlap and unequal wide comb fingers are used to reduce the side instability and improve the pull-in voltage. The measurement results show that the non-initial overlap comb-drive actuator improves the pull-in voltage by 73.3% than the initial overlap comb-drive actuator, and the maximum displacement of the non-initial overlap actuator is larger by 78.9% than that of the initial overlap actuator.
Published: 6 February 2016
Micromachines, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/mi7020024

Abstract:
This topical review discusses recent development and trends on scanning micromirrors for biomedical applications. This also includes a biomedical micro robot for precise manipulations in a limited volume. The characteristics of medical scanning micromirror are explained in general with the fundamental of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for fabrication processes. Along with the explanations of mechanism and design, the principle of actuation are provided for general readers. In this review, several testing methodology and examples are described based on many types of actuators, such as, electrothermal actuators, electrostatic actuators, electromagnetic actuators, pneumatic actuators, and shape memory alloy. Moreover, this review provides description of the key fabrication processes and common materials in order to be a basic guideline for selecting micro-actuators. With recent developments on scanning micromirrors, performances of biomedical application are enhanced for higher resolution, high accuracy, and high dexterity. With further developments on integrations and control schemes, MEMS-based scanning micromirrors would be able to achieve a better performance for medical applications due to small size, ease in microfabrication, mass production, high scanning speed, low power consumption, mechanical stable, and integration compatibility.
, , Muthukumaran Packirisamy,
Biomedical Microdevices, Volume 17, pp 1-12; doi:10.1007/s10544-015-9931-3

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Amir Ghanbari Mardasi, Mahmood Ghanbari, Mehdi Salmani Tehrani
Published: 25 September 2014
Photonics North 2014, Volume 9288; doi:10.1117/12.2075082

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Rui Li Meng, Hong Qun Zhang, Heng Liu
Key Engineering Materials, Volume 609-610, pp 1375-1380; doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/kem.609-610.1375

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Huijun Yu, , , Xiaoping He, , Zhi Zeng
Mathematical Problems in Engineering, Volume 2014, pp 1-6; doi:10.1155/2014/894286

Abstract:
The boron-doping silicon beam commonly used in microdevices exhibits a nonuniform material property along its thickness or width because of the gradient of boron concentration induced by diffusion process. The constant of rigidity, one of the most important parameters of microbeam, needs to be accurately calculated and designed in the development of high precise sensors and actuators. Current design methods, mainly depending on the analytical solutions derived under the assumption of a uniform material property or some commercial software for a varied property, are not adequate and time consuming to calculate the constant of rigidity of boron-doping silicon beam. A multilayer model is proposed in this paper to replace the continuous solid model by dividing the beam into separated layers glued together. The finite element lamination method is utilized to acquire the equivalent Young modulus and moment of inertia of cross section of multilayer model. The equivalent values are calculated from double-layer structures to multilayer ones based on the small deformation theory and the material mechanics theory. The proposed method provides an effective method to design the stiffness or frequency of microdevice and its results are validated by COMSOL simulation.
Yasser M Sabry, Bassam Saadany, ,
Light: Science & Applications, Volume 2; doi:10.1038/lsa.2013.50

Abstract:
Light: Science and Applications is an open access journal that publishes the highest quality articles in basic and applied optics and photonics.
Wen-Cheng Kuo, Chen-Wei Chen, Chih-Ming Liu
Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Volume 23; doi:10.1088/0960-1317/23/6/065021

Roozbeh Ahmadi, , Javad Dargahi
Published: 4 February 2013
Journal of Medical Devices, Volume 7; doi:10.1115/1.4023264

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 15 January 2013
Materials, Volume 6, pp 244-254; doi:10.3390/ma6010244

Abstract:
Microstructure curvature, or buckling, is observed in the micromachining of silicon sensors because of the doping of impurities for realizing certain electrical and mechanical processes. This behavior can be a key source of error in inertial sensors. Therefore, identifying the factors that influence the buckling value is important in designing MEMS devices. In this study, the curvature in the proof mass of an accelerometer is modeled as a multilayered solid model. Modeling is performed according to the characteristics of the solid diffusion mechanism in the bulk-dissolved wafer process (BDWP) based on the self-stopped etch technique. Moreover, the proposed multilayered solid model is established as an equivalent composite structure formed by a group of thin layers that are glued together. Each layer has a different Young’s modulus value and each undergoes different volume shrinkage strain owing to boron doping in silicon. Observations of five groups of proof mass blocks of accelerometers suggest that the theoretical model is effective in determining the buckling value of a fabricated structure.
Qinghua Chen, Yingjun Chen, Wengang Wu, Yanmei Li, Li Li, Guizhen Yan, Yilong Hao
Published: 21 December 2012
by Wiley
Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Volume 55, pp 231-236; doi:10.1002/mop.27293

Published: 30 September 2012
Mechatronics, Volume 22, pp 696-705; doi:10.1016/j.mechatronics.2012.02.008

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Roozbeh Ahmadi, Muthukumaran Packirisamy, Javad Dargahi
Journal of Biomedical Optics, Volume 17, pp 0814161-0814168; doi:10.1117/1.jbo.17.8.081416

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 25 May 2012
Sensors, Volume 12, pp 6857-6868; doi:10.3390/s120606857

Abstract:
Gap asymmetry in differential capacitors is the primary source of the zero bias output of force-balanced micro accelerometers. It is also used to evaluate the applicability of differential structures in MEMS manufacturing. Therefore, determining the asymmetry level has considerable significance for the design of MEMS devices. This paper proposes an experimental-theoretical method for predicting gap asymmetry in differential sensing capacitors of micro accelerometers. The method involves three processes: first, bi-directional measurement, which can sharply reduce the influence of the feedback circuit on bias output, is proposed. Experiments are then carried out on a centrifuge to obtain the input and output data of an accelerometer. Second, the analytical input-output relationship of the accelerometer with gap asymmetry and circuit error is theoretically derived. Finally, the prediction methodology combines the measurement results and analytical derivation to identify the asymmetric error of 30 accelerometers fabricated by DRIE. Results indicate that the level of asymmetry induced by fabrication uncertainty is about ±5 × 10−2, and that the absolute error is about ±0.2 µm under a 4 µm gap.
H. Cai, K. J. Xu, A. Q. Liu, Q. Fang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong
Published: 2 January 2012
Applied Physics Letters, Volume 100; doi:10.1063/1.3673854

Bonjin Koo, Xuemeng Zhang, , Srinivasa M. Salapaka, Placid M. Ferreira
Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, Volume 21, pp 13-22; doi:10.1109/jmems.2011.2174425

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Giuseppe Coppola, , Ivo Rendina, Mario Iodice
Optical Engineering, Volume 50, pp 071112-071112-14; doi:10.1117/1.3574378

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J. F. Tao, H. Cai, A. B. Yu, Q. X. Zhang, J. Wu, K. Xu, J. T. Lin, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, A. Q. Liu
2011 16th International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference pp 1753-1756; doi:10.1109/transducers.2011.5969798

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Feng-Yu Lee, Tsung-Lin Tang,
Published: 1 January 2011
Procedia Engineering, Volume 25, pp 689-692; doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2011.12.170

Abstract:
This study demonstrates the design, fabrication and characteristics of a novel dual-axis microstage. The stage is supported by curved-beam springs and driven by two Lorentz force actuators. By modulating the magnitude and direction of these two actuators, the stage can perform 2-axis in-plane motions. The microstage has two merits: (1) Lorentz force actuator with thermal buckling characteristic to enlarge the microstage displacement, (2) curved-beam spring to enable the 2-axis positioning. The typical microstage has a planar size of 3mm•3 mm with output displacements of ± 13 μm in X and Y-axis.
Qinghua Chen, Wengang Wu, Haiyang Mao, Bochao Du, Li Li, Yilong Hao
2010 IEEE Sensors pp 2061-2064; doi:10.1109/icsens.2010.5690306

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Q. H. Chen, W. G. Wu, Z. Q. Wang, G. Z. Yan,
Published: 7 October 2010
by IEEE
Journal of Lightwave Technology, Volume 28; doi:10.1109/JLT.2010.2084290

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, Giuseppe Coppola, , M. Casalino, M. Gioffrè,
Published: 1 January 2010
Optical Switches pp 61-96; doi:10.1533/9780857090416.61

Artificial Intelligence: Foundations, Theory, and Algorithms, Volume 327, pp 1-18; doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16225-1_1

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Z. K. Torabi, M. Vali, B. Ebrahimi, M. Bahrami
2010 IEEE 5th International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems pp 122-128; doi:10.1109/nems.2010.5592165

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Y Xu, M F Wang, C S Premachandran, K W S Chen, ,
Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Volume 20; doi:10.1088/0960-1317/20/1/015008

Chun-An Huang, Jacky Chan, Ming-Hsuan Chen, Jen-Bin Hsu, Steve Chiu
2009 4th International Microsystems, Packaging, Assembly and Circuits Technology Conference pp 148-151; doi:10.1109/impact.2009.5382158

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Wen Chao Liu, Chee Leung Mak, Kin Hung Wong
Published: 24 July 2009
Optics Express, Volume 17, pp 13677-13684; doi:10.1364/oe.17.013677

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Qinghua H. Chen, Wengang G. Wu, Ziqian Q. Wang, Zibin B. Zou, Guizhen Z. Yan, Yilong L. Hao
Published: 1 December 2008
by Wiley
Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Volume 50, pp 3012-3016; doi:10.1002/mop.23879

Abiodun A. Fasoro, Manoj Mittal, , Dereje A. Agonafer, Harry E. Stephanou
Published: 17 November 2008
Journal of Electronic Packaging, Volume 130; doi:10.1115/1.2993142

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Q.H. Chen, W.G. Wu, Z.Q. Wang, G.Z. Yan, Y.L. Hao
Published: 1 October 2008
Optics Communications, Volume 281, pp 5049-5057; doi:10.1016/j.optcom.2008.06.077

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Deepkishore Mukhopadhyay, , Eakkachai Pengwang, Placid Ferreira
Published: 1 September 2008
Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Volume 147, pp 340-351; doi:10.1016/j.sna.2008.04.018

Q. H. Chen, W. G. Wu, Z. Q Wang, G. Z. Yan, Y. L. Hao
Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Volume 50, pp 2185-2189; doi:10.1002/mop.23603

Qinghua Chen, Wengang Wu, Guizhen Yan, Ziqian Wang, Yilong Hao
Published: 21 March 2008
by IEEE
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Volume 20, pp 632-634; doi:10.1109/LPT.2008.918924

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Bruno Borovic, Ai-Qun Liu, Dan Popa, Hong Cai,
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Volume 55, pp 417-426; doi:10.1109/TIE.2007.910514

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, K. Smolka
2007 International Aegean Conference on Electrical Machines and Power Electronics pp 385-392; doi:10.1109/acemp.2007.4510533

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Tom Zhong, X. M. Zhang, Hong Cai, A. Q. Liu
TRANSDUCERS 2007 - 2007 International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference pp 2409-2412; doi:10.1109/sensor.2007.4300656

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, Deepkishore Mukhopadhyay, Placid M Ferreira
Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Volume 17, pp 1154-1161; doi:10.1088/0960-1317/17/6/008

T. Zhong, , A. Q. Liu, J. Li, , D. Y. Tang
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Volume 13, pp 348-358; doi:10.1109/jstqe.2007.893111

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Yao-Joe Yang, Wen-Cheng Kuo, , Wu-Lang Lin
Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Volume 17, pp 1034-1041; doi:10.1088/0960-1317/17/5/025

Shuhai Jia, Guifu Ding, Xiaolin Zhao, Chunsheng Yang
Published: 1 March 2007
Optics & Laser Technology, Volume 39, pp 353-358; doi:10.1016/j.optlastec.2005.07.003

A. B. Yu, , H. Cai, Q. X. Zhang, A. Q. Liu
2007 IEEE 20th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) pp 663-666; doi:10.1109/memsys.2007.4433084

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
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