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Published: 14 June 2022
by MDPI
Metabolites, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12060543

Abstract:
This prospective study aimed to evaluate the variation in magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI)-observed brain metabolite concentrations according to anatomical location, sex, and age, and the relationships among regional metabolite distributions, using short echo time (TE) whole-brain MRSI (WB-MRSI). Thirty-eight healthy participants underwent short TE WB-MRSI. The major metabolite ratios, i.e., N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), choline (Cho)/Cr, glutamate + glutamine (Glx)/Cr, and myoinositol (mI)/Cr, were calculated voxel-by-voxel. Their variations according to anatomical regions, sex, and age, and their relationship to each other were evaluated by using repeated-measures analysis of variance, t-tests, and Pearson’s product-moment correlation analyses. All four metabolite ratios exhibited widespread regional variation across the cerebral hemispheres (corrected p < 0.05). Laterality between the two sides and sex-related variation were also shown (p < 0.05). In several regions, NAA/Cr and Glx/Cr decreased and mI/Cr increased with age (corrected p < 0.05). There was a moderate positive correlation between NAA/Cr and mI/Cr in the insular lobe and thalamus and between Glx/Cr and mI/Cr in the parietal lobe (r ≥ 0.348, corrected p ≤ 0.025). These observations demand age- and sex- specific regional reference values in interpreting these metabolites, and they may facilitate the understanding of glial-neuronal interactions in maintaining homeostasis.
, Stephen M Stahl
Journal of Psychopharmacology, Volume 36, pp 428-438; https://doi.org/10.1177/02698811221087645

Abstract:
Schizophrenia manifests as loss of brain volume in specific areas in a progressive nature and an important question concerns whether long-term treatment with medications contributes to this. The aim of the current PRISMA systematic review was to search for prospective studies involving randomization to treatment. PROSPERO ID: CRD42020197874. The MEDLINE/PUBMED was searched and it returned 2638 articles; 3 were fulfilling the inclusion criteria. A fourth was published later; they included 359 subjects, of whom 86 were healthy controls, while the rest were first-episode patients, with 91 under olanzapine, 93 under haloperidol, 48 under risperidone, 5 under paliperidone, 6 under ziprasidone, and 30 under placebo. Probably one-third of patients were suffering from a psychotic disorder other than schizophrenia. The consideration of their results suggested that there is no significant difference between these medications concerning their effects on brain structure and also in comparison to healthy subjects. There does not seem to be any strong support to the opinion that medications that treat psychosis cause loss of brain volume in patients with schizophrenia. On the contrary, the data might imply the possible presence of a protective effect for D2, 5-HT2, and NE alpha-2 antagonists (previously called SGAs). However, the literature is limited and focused research in large study samples is essential to clarify the issue, since important numerical differences do exist. The possibility of the results and their heterogeneity to be artifacts secondary to a modification of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal by antipsychotics should not be easily rejected until relevant data are available.
Published: 27 March 2021
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 27 March 2021
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Hans-Jurgen Moeller, Siegfried Kasper, Carol Tamminga, Shigeto Yamawaki, Rene Kahn, Rajiv Tandon, , Afzal Javed
CNS Spectrums, Volume 26, pp 562-586; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852920001546

Abstract:
This is a report of a joint World Psychiatric Association/International College of Neuropsychopharmacology (WPA/CINP) workgroup concerning the risk/benefit ratio of antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia. It utilized a selective but, within topic, comprehensive review of the literature, taking into consideration all the recently discussed arguments on the matter and avoiding taking sides when the results in the literature were equivocal. The workgroup’s conclusions suggested that antipsychotics are efficacious both during the acute and the maintenance phase, and that the current data do not support the existence of a supersensitivity rebound psychosis. Long-term treated patients have better overall outcome and lower mortality than those not taking antipsychotics. Longer duration of untreated psychosis and relapses are modestly related to worse outcome. Loss of brain volume is evident already at first episode and concerns loss of neuropil volume rather than cell loss. Progression of volume loss probably happens in a subgroup of patients with worse prognosis. In humans, antipsychotic treatment neither causes nor worsens volume loss, while there are some data in favor for a protective effect. Schizophrenia manifests 2 to 3 times higher mortality vs the general population, and treatment with antipsychotics includes a number of dangers, including tardive dyskinesia and metabolic syndrome; however, antipsychotic treatment is related to lower mortality, including cardiovascular mortality. In conclusion, the literature strongly supports the use of antipsychotics both during the acute and the maintenance phase without suggesting that it is wise to discontinue antipsychotics after a certain period of time. Antipsychotic treatment improves long-term outcomes and lowers overall and specific-cause mortality.
Rebecca DeGiosio, Ryan M. Kelly, Adam M. DeDionisio, Jason T. Newman, Kenneth N. Fish, Allan R. Sampson, ,
Published: 28 August 2019
npj Schizophrenia, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41537-019-0081-0

Abstract:
Several postmortem studies have reported lower levels of immunoreactivity (IR) for microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) in several cortical regions of individuals with schizophrenia (SZ). However, whether this effect is conserved across multiple brain areas within an individual with SZ or if it is regionally-specific remains unclear. We characterized patterns of MAP2-IR across three cortical regions at different levels of the rostral-caudal axis within individual subjects with and without SZ. MAP2-IR levels were measured in deep layer 3 of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), lateral intraparietal cortex (LIP), and primary visual cortex (V1). Postmortem tissue containing each cortical region was derived from 20 pairs of SZ subjects and nonpsychiatric comparison (NPC) subjects matched perfectly for sex, and as closely as possible for age and postmortem interval. MAP2-IR was assessed by quantitative fluorescence microscopy. We observed significantly lower levels of MAP2-IR in SZ subjects relative to NPC subjects, without a significant region by diagnosis interaction. Logs of the within-pair ratios (SZ:NPC) of MAP2-IR were significantly correlated across the three regions. These findings demonstrate that MAP2-IR deficits in SZ are consistent across three neocortical regions within individual subjects. This pattern of MAP2-IR deficit has implications for therapeutic development and future investigations of MAP2 pathology in SZ.
, Domagoj Džaja, Miloš Judaš, Sven Lončarič
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Volume 519, pp 237-246; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physa.2018.12.027

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 1 November 2018
Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Volume 93, pp 2-15; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2017.08.004

Abstract:
Over the last 50 years, quantitative methodology has made important contributions to our understanding of the cellular composition of the human brain. Not all of the concepts that emerged from quantitative studies have turned out to be true. Here, I examine the history and current status of some of the most influential notions. This includes claims of how many cells compose the human brain, and how different cell types contribute and in what ratios. Additional concepts entail whether we lose significant numbers of neurons with normal aging, whether chronic alcohol abuse contributes to cortical neuron loss, whether there are significant differences in the quantitative composition of cerebral cortex between male and female brains, whether superior intelligence in humans correlates with larger numbers of brain cells, and whether there are secular (generational) changes in neuron number. Do changes in cell number or changes in ratios of cell types accompany certain diseases, and should all counting methods, even the theoretically unbiased ones, be validated and calibrated? I here examine the origin and the current status of major influential concepts, and I review the evidence and arguments that have led to either confirmation or refutation of such concepts. I discuss the circumstances, assumptions and mindsets that perpetuated erroneous views, and the types of technological advances that have, in some cases, challenged longstanding ideas. I will acknowledge the roles of key proponents of influential concepts in the sometimes convoluted path towards recognition of the true cellular composition of the human brain.
Allyson P Mallya, Ariel Y Deutch
Schizophrenia Bulletin, Volume 44, pp 948-957; https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sby088

Abstract:
Contrary to the notion that neurology but not psychiatry is the domain of disorders evincing structural brain alterations, it is now clear that there are subtle but consistent neuropathological changes in schizophrenia. These range from increases in ventricular size to dystrophic changes in dendritic spines. A decrease in dendritic spine density in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is among the most replicated of postmortem structural findings in schizophrenia. Examination of the mechanisms that account for the loss of dendritic spines has in large part focused on genes and molecules that regulate neuronal structure. But the simple question of what is the effector of spine loss, ie, where do the lost spines go, is unanswered. Recent data on glial cells suggest that microglia (MG), and perhaps astrocytes, play an important physiological role in synaptic remodeling of neurons during development. Synapses are added to the dendrites of pyramidal cells during the maturation of these neurons; excess synapses are subsequently phagocytosed by MG. In the PFC, this occurs during adolescence, when certain symptoms of schizophrenia emerge. This brief review discusses recent advances in our understanding of MG function and how these non-neuronal cells lead to structural changes in neurons in schizophrenia.
Christoph U. Correll, , John M. Kane
Published: 24 May 2018
World Psychiatry, Volume 17, pp 149-160; https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20516

Abstract:
The long-term benefit-to-risk ratio of sustained antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia has recently been questioned. In this paper, we critically examine the literature on the long-term efficacy and effectiveness of this treatment. We also review the evidence on the undesired effects, the impact on physical morbidity and mortality, as well as the neurobiological correlates of chronic exposure to antipsychotics. Finally, we summarize factors that affect the risk-benefit ratio. There is consistent evidence supporting the efficacy of antipsychotics in the short term and mid term following stabilization of acute psychotic symptoms. There is insufficient evidence supporting the notion that this effect changes in the long term. Most, but not all, of the long-term cohort studies find a decrease in efficacy during chronic treatment with antipsychotics. However, these results are inconclusive, given the extensive risk of bias, including increasing non-adherence. On the other hand, long-term studies based on national registries, which have lower risk of bias, find an advantage in terms of effectiveness during sustained antipsychotic treatment. Sustained antipsychotic treatment has been also consistently associated with lower mortality in people with schizophrenia compared to no antipsychotic treatment. Nevertheless, chronic antipsychotic use is associated with metabolic disturbance and tardive dyskinesia. The latter is the clearest undesired clinical consequence of brain functioning as a potential result of chronic antipsychotic exposure, likely from dopaminergic hypersensitivity, without otherwise clear evidence of other irreversible neurobiological changes. Adjunctive psychosocial interventions seem critical for achieving recovery. However, overall, the current literature does not support the safe reduction of antipsychotic dosages by 50% or more in stabilized individuals receiving adjunctive psychosocial interventions. In conclusion, the critical appraisal of the literature indicates that, although chronic antipsychotic use can be associated with undesirable neurologic and metabolic side effects, the evidence supporting its long-term efficacy and effectiveness, including impact on life expectancy, outweighs the evidence against this practice, overall indicating a favorable benefit-to-risk ratio. However, the finding that a minority of individuals diagnosed initially with schizophrenia appear to be relapse free for long periods, despite absence of sustained antipsychotic treatment, calls for further research on patient-level predictors of positive outcomes in people with an initial psychotic presentation.
Published: 6 March 2018
Molecular Psychiatry, Volume 24, pp 549-561; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-018-0041-5

Abstract:
Although synaptic loss is thought to be core to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, the nature, consistency and magnitude of synaptic protein and mRNA changes has not been systematically appraised. Our objective was thus to systematically review and meta-analyse findings. The entire PubMed database was searched for studies from inception date to the 1st of July 2017. We selected case-control postmortem studies in schizophrenia quantifying synaptic protein or mRNA levels in brain tissue. The difference in protein and mRNA levels between cases and controls was extracted and meta-analysis conducted. Among the results, we found a significant reduction in synaptophysin in schizophrenia in the hippocampus (effect size: −0.65, p < 0.01), frontal (effect size: −0.36, p = 0.04), and cingulate cortices (effect size: −0.54, p = 0.02), but no significant changes for synaptophysin in occipital and temporal cortices, and no changes for SNAP-25, PSD-95, VAMP, and syntaxin in frontal cortex. There were insufficient studies for meta-analysis of complexins, synapsins, rab3A and synaptotagmin and mRNA measures. Findings are summarised for these, which generally show reductions in SNAP-25, PSD-95, synapsin and rab3A protein levels in the hippocampus but inconsistency in other regions. Our findings of moderate–large reductions in synaptophysin in hippocampus and frontal cortical regions, and a tendency for reductions in other pre- and postsynaptic proteins in the hippocampus are consistent with models that implicate synaptic loss in schizophrenia. However, they also identify potential differences between regions and proteins, suggesting synaptic loss is not uniform in nature or extent.
Emily M. Parker,
Published: 9 January 2018
Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2017.00131

Abstract:
It has long been known that auditory processing is disrupted in schizophrenia. More recently, postmortem studies have provided direct evidence that morphological alterations to neurons in auditory cortex are implicated in the pathophysiology of this illness, confirming previous predictions. Potential neural substrates for auditory impairment and gray matter loss in auditory cortex in schizophrenia have been identified, described, and are the focus of this review article. Pyramidal cell somal volume is reduced in auditory cortex, as are dendritic spine density and number in schizophrenia. Pyramidal cells are not lost in this region in schizophrenia, indicating that dendritic spine reductions reflect fewer spines per pyramidal cell, consistent with the reduced neuropil hypothesis of schizophrenia. Stereological methods have aided in the proper collection, reporting and interpretation of this data. Mechanistic studies exploring relationships between genetic risk for schizophrenia and altered dendrite morphology represent an important avenue for future research in order to further elucidate cellular pathology in auditory cortex in schizophrenia.
, , Jacob Jelsing, Henrik H. Hansen
Published: 8 December 2017
Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2017.00109

Abstract:
Stereological analysis is the optimal tool for quantitative assessment of brain morphological and cellular changes induced by neurotoxic lesions or treatment interventions. Stereological methods based on random sampling techniques yield unbiased estimates of particle counts within a defined volume, thereby providing a true quantitative estimate of the target cell population. Neurodegenerative diseases involve loss of specific neuron types, such as the midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase-positive dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease and in animal models of nigrostriatal degeneration. Therefore, we applied an established automated physical disector principle in a fractionator design for efficient stereological quantitative analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of hemiparkinsonian rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions. We obtained reliable estimates of dopamine neuron numbers, and established the relationship between behavioral asymmetry and dopamine neuron loss on the lesioned side. In conclusion, the automated physical disector principle provided a useful and efficient tool for unbiased estimation of TH-positive neurons in rat midbrain, and should prove valuable for investigating neuroprotective strategies in 6-OHDA model of parkinsonism, while generalizing to other immunohistochemically-defined cell populations.
Diarmuid J. Cahalane, Barbara L. Finlay
The Wiley Handbook of Evolutionary Neuroscience pp 388-409; https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118316757.ch13

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Caroline Horton Lew, Chelsea Brown, ,
Published: 13 August 2016
Autism Research, Volume 10, pp 99-112; https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.1677

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Berko Milleit, Stefan Smesny, Matthias Rothermundt, Christoph Preul, Matthias L. Schroeter, Christof Von Eiff, Gerald Ponath, Christine Milleit, Heinrich Sauer,
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2016.00033

Abstract:
Background: Schizophrenia can be conceptualized as a form of dysconnectivity between brain regions. To investigate the neurobiological foundation of dysconnectivity, one approach is to analyze white matter structures, such as the pathology of fiber tracks. S100B is considered a marker protein for glial cells, in particular oligodendrocytes and astroglia, that passes the blood brain barrier and is detectable in peripheral blood. Earlier Studies have consistently reported increased S100B levels in schizophrenia. In this study, we aim to investigate associations between S100B and structural white matter abnormalities. Methods: We analyzed data of 17 unmedicated schizophrenic patients (first and recurrent episode) and 22 controls. We used voxel based morphometry (VBM) to detect group differences of white matter structures as obtained from T1-weighted MR-images and considered S100B serum levels as a regressor in an age-corrected interaction analysis. Results: S100B was increased in both patient subgroups. Using VBM, we found clusters indicating significant differences of the association between S100B concentration and white matter. Involved anatomical structures are the posterior cingulate bundle and temporal white matter structures assigned to the superior longitudinal fasciculus. Conclusions: S100B-associated alterations of white matter are shown to be existent already at time of first manifestation of psychosis and are distinct from findings in recurrent episode patients. This suggests involvement of S100B in an ongoing and dynamic process associated with structural brain changes in schizophrenia. However, it remains elusive whether increased S100B serum concentrations in psychotic patients represent a protective response to a continuous pathogenic process or if elevated S100B levels are actively involved in promoting structural brain damage.
Lisette Salvesen, , , Tina Klitmøller Agander, Annemette Løkkegaard,
Published: 13 October 2015
Abstract:
To determine the extent of neocortical involvement in multiple system atrophy (MSA), we used design-based stereological methods to estimate the total numbers of neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia in the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital cortex of brains from 11 patients with MSA and 11 age- and gender-matched control subjects. The stereological data were supported by cell marker expression analyses in tissue samples from the prefrontal cortex. We found significantly fewer neurons in the frontal and parietal cortex of MSA brains compared with control brains. Significantly more astrocytes and microglia were observed in the frontal, parietal, and temporal cortex of MSA brains, whereas no change in the total number of oligodendrocytes was seen in any of the neocortical regions. There were significantly fewer neurons in the frontal cortex of MSA patients with impaired executive function than in patients with normal executive function. Our results indicate that the involvement of the neocortex in MSA is far more widespread and substantial than previously thought. In addition, our results suggest that the increasingly recognized cognitive impairment in MSA may be related to neuronal loss in the frontal cortex.
K. Bakhshi,
Published: 1 September 2015
Neuroscience, Volume 303, pp 82-102; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.06.028

Abstract:
Schizophrenia is a devastating mental illness. Although its etiology is still largely unknown, strides have been taken throughout the last several decades to elucidate the nature of the neuropathology behind this disorder. The advent of neuroimaging technologies such as computerized axial tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have progressed knowledge about the macroscopic brain changes that occur in schizophrenia, including the characteristic enlarged ventricle size and reductions in gray matter volume, whole-brain volume, and white matter anisotropy. Although this review presents a broad outline of current and historical neuropathological research, the focus is primarily on the quantitative neuropathology of the cerebral cortex in schizophrenia, which may underlie many of the larger scale changes observed. The reduced neuropil hypothesis has been suggested as a microanatomical explanation to account for these macroscopic changes, although the present review finds that evidence does not always support this. A quantitative meta-analytic summary of these studies, focused on neuron density, provides support for the finding of increased neuron density in schizophrenia, with variation dependent on age. This is consistent with neuroimaging data and implicates an altered aging trajectory as a factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Combined with evidence from other neuroanatomical studies reviewed here, as well as studies in childhood-onset schizophrenia, the evidence converges on a progressive neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia related to altered neuroplasticity. The evidence also supports a particular vulnerability of inhibitory cortical circuits with markers of interneurons showing some of the more consistent reductions in schizophrenia.
, Shuken Boku, Yoshito Takahashi
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, Volume 69, pp 243-258; https://doi.org/10.1111/pcn.12242

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, , Frieder Haenisch, , Tillmann Ruland, Hassan Rahmoune, ,
Published: 1 November 2014
Progress in Neurobiology, Volume 122, pp 45-72; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2014.08.002

Abstract:
Major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, major depressive and bipolar disorders are severe, chronic and debilitating, and are associated with high disease burden and healthcare costs. Currently, diagnoses of these disorders rely on interview-based assessments of subjective self-reported symptoms. Early diagnosis is difficult, misdiagnosis is a frequent occurrence and there are no objective tests that aid in the prediction of individual responses to treatment. Consequently, validated biomarkers are urgently needed to help address these unmet clinical needs. Historically, psychiatric disorders are viewed as brain disorders and consequently only a few researchers have as yet evaluated systemic changes in psychiatric patients. However, promising research has begun to challenge this concept and there is an increasing awareness that disease-related changes can be traced in the peripheral system which may even be involved in the precipitation of disease onset and course. Converging evidence from molecular profiling analysis of blood serum/plasma have revealed robust molecular changes in psychiatric patients, suggesting that these disorders may be detectable in other systems of the body such as the circulating blood. In this review, we discuss the current clinical needs in psychiatry, highlight the importance of biomarkers in the field, and review a representative selection of biomarker studies to highlight opportunities for the implementation of personalized medicine approaches in the field of psychiatry. It is anticipated that the implementation of validated biomarker tests will not only improve the diagnosis and more effective treatment of psychiatric patients, but also improve prognosis and disease outcome.
Published: 1 June 2013
Medical Hypotheses, Volume 80, pp 791-794; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2013.03.013

Abstract:
Chronic widespread stress-induced serotonergic overdrive in the cerebral cortex in schizophrenia, especially in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral frontal lobe, is the basic cause of the disease. The concept of excessive serotonergic stimulation is supported by NMR spectroscopy; peripheral depletion of phospholipids, serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors being linked to phospholipase A2; positron emission tomography data with serotonergic ligands; and the fact that blockade of serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors by atypical neuroleptics slows down the course of the disease. Disruption of glutamate signalling by serotonergic overdrive leads to neuronal hypometabolism and ultimately synaptic atrophy and grey matter loss according to principles of brain plasticity. Normal dopamine input to an impaired ACC causes positive symptoms. Frontal lobe hibernation causes negative symptoms and cognitive impairment.
, , , , , , Anita Begović, John G. Csernansky, Michael I. Miller, Pasko Rakic
Journal of Comparative Neurology, Volume 521, pp 1040-1053; https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.23217

Abstract:
Prenatal exposure of the brain to environmental insult causes different neurological symptoms and behavioral outcomes depending on the time of exposure. To examine the cellular bases for these differences, we exposed rhesus macaque fetuses to x‐rays during early gestation (embryonic day [E]30–E42), i.e., before the onset of corticogenesis, or in midgestation (E70–E81), when superficial cortical layers are generated. Animals were delivered at term (∼E165), and the size and cellular composition of prefrontal association cortex (area 46) examined in adults using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and stereologic analysis. Both early and midgestational radiation exposure diminished the surface area and volume of area 46. However, early exposure spared cortical thickness and did not alter laminar composition, and due to higher cell density, neuron number was within the normal range. In contrast, exposure to x‐rays at midgestation reduced cortical thickness, mainly due to elimination of neurons destined for the superficial layers. A cell‐sparse gap, observed within layer III, was not filled by the later‐generated neurons destined for layer II, indicating that there is no subsequent replacement of the lost neurons. The distinct areal and laminar pathology consequent to temporally segregated irradiation is consistent with basic postulates of the radial unit hypothesis of cortical development. In addition, we show that an environmental disturbance inflicted in early gestation can induce subtle cytoarchitectonic alterations without loss of neurons, such as those observed in schizophrenia, whereas midgestational exposure causes selective elimination of neurons and cortical thinning as observed in some forms of mental retardation and fetal alcohol syndrome. J. Comp. Neurol. 521:1040–1053, 2013.
Katrine Fabricius, Jette Stub Jacobsen,
Published: 9 August 2012
Neurobiology of Aging, Volume 34, pp 91-99; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2012.06.009

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Nuno R. B. Martins, , Robert A. Freitas
International Journal of Machine Consciousness, Volume 04, pp 109-140; https://doi.org/10.1142/s1793843012400069

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Kira Konnova, Cynthia Bleiwas
Published: 30 April 2012
Schizophrenia Research, Volume 136, pp 43-50; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2012.01.006

Abstract:
The inferior parietal lobe (IPL) is a center of multisensory integration, and both functional and structural MRI studies have found evidence that pathology in this region may contribute to disrupted sensory perception in schizophrenia. To further define this pathology, we used postmortem samples from the left and right IPL, to compare the thickness and volume of the upper (I-III) and lower (IV-VI) cortical layers. The samples were divided into supramarginal and angular gyri, and neuron density and size were measured in the supramarginal gyrus. The laminar thickness and volume measurements did not demonstrate significant changes in schizophrenia, but did show that the angular gyrus was thinner than the supramarginal gyrus, due to a difference mainly in the lower layers. Measurements of cortical thickness, neuron size and neuron density all showed some evidence of previously reported normal hemispheric differences. These asymmetries were reduced in schizophrenia, but the small changes were at the threshold of detection, and are discussed in the context of the sensitivity of the methods applied.
, , Nadine Reuter, Isabella Braun, Ina Giegling, Annette Hartmann, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Dan Rujescu
Published: 30 April 2012
Methods, Volume 56, pp 519-527; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2012.04.002

Abstract:
Growing evidence implicates that abnormal stem cell proliferation and neurodegenerative mechanisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Here, we studied the underlying pathomechanisms of psychosis. We are employing a translational approach combining in vivo data with supplementary data from an adult neuronal stem cell-derived cell culture model by generating a large number of analytes in our specimens following a multiplexing strategy. In the animal model the NMDA receptor was chronically antagonized by MK-801 at ultralow doses. As a result of this, we were able to demonstrate a roughly twofold increased density of PCNA positive cells in the germinal zone of the dentate gyrus indicating enhanced neuroproliferative activity. In vitro stem cell experiments additionally pointed to this direction showing an increase both in proliferation and neuronal differentiation after MK-801 treatment. These alterations were partially prevented by coapplication of the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol. In addition, apoptotic activity assessed by immunohistochemical demonstration of cleaved caspase-3 stainings was unaffected by MK-801 treatment. These observations were largely supported by microarray gene expression analysis, which permits high-throughput multiplexed assessment of expression data from a comprehensive set of genes and showed parallels with data from human post mortem studies. In conclusion, our data support the notion, that abnormal proliferation due to anti-apoptotic mechanisms may represent a factor in the pathogenesis of psychosis. Thus, research on the exact interplay between glutamatergic neurotransmission and neuronal proliferation deserves more attention. This dual in vivo and in vitro strategy described here may prove as a suitable model for addressing complex neuropsychiatric diseases especially when taking advantage of the potential of multiplex technologies not only in diagnostics but also in basic research.
Published: 24 April 2012
Abstract:
An increase in apoptotic events may underlie neuropathology in schizophrenia. By data-mining approaches, we identified significant expression changes in death receptor signaling pathways in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of patients with schizophrenia, particularly implicating the Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily member 6 (FAS) receptor and the Tumor Necrosis Factor [ligand] Superfamily member 13 (TNFSF13) in schizophrenia. We sought to confirm and replicate in an independent tissue collection the noted mRNA changes with quantitative real-time RT-PCR. To test for regional and diagnostic specificity, tissue from orbital frontal cortex (OFC) was examined and a bipolar disorder group included. In schizophrenia, we confirmed and replicated significantly increased expression of TNFSF13 mRNA in the DLPFC. Also, a significantly larger proportion of subjects in the schizophrenia group had elevated FAS receptor expression in the DLPFC relative to unaffected controls. These changes were not observed in the bipolar disorder group. In the OFC, there were no significant differences in TNFSF13 or FAS receptor mRNA expression. Decreases in BH3 interacting domain death agonist (BID) mRNA transcript levels were found in the schizophrenia and bipolar disorder groups affecting both the DLPFC and the OFC. We tested if TNFSF13 mRNA expression correlated with neuronal mRNAs in the DLPFC, and found significant negative correlations with interneuron markers, parvalbumin and somatostatin, and a positive correlation with PPP1R9B (spinophilin), but not DLG4 (PSD-95). The expression of TNFSF13 mRNA in DLPFC correlated negatively with tissue pH, but decreasing pH in cultured cells did not cause increased TNFSF13 mRNA nor did exogenous TNFSF13 decrease pH. We concluded that increased TNFSF13 expression may be one of several cell-death cytokine abnormalities that contribute to the observed brain pathology in schizophrenia, and while increased TNFSF13 may be associated with lower brain pH, the change is not necessarily causally related to brain pH.
, , Emi Kumamaru, Chiaki Itami, Shuichi Chiba, , , Ritsuko Katoh-Semba,
Published: 11 March 2012
Cerebral Cortex, Volume 23, pp 847-858; https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhs074

Abstract:
Repeated administration of phencyclidine (PCP), a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocker, produces schizophrenia-like behaviors in humans and rodents. Although impairment of synaptic function has been implicated in the effect of PCP, the molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Considering that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in synaptic plasticity, we examined whether exposure to PCP leads to impaired BDNF function in cultured cortical neurons. We found that PCP caused a transient increase in the level of intracellular BDNF within 3 h. Despite the increased intracellular amount of BDNF, activation of Trk receptors and downstream signaling cascades, including MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways, were decreased. The number of synaptic sites and expression of synaptic proteins were decreased 48 h after PCP application without any impact on cell viability. Both electrophysiological and biochemical analyses revealed that PCP diminished glutamatergic neurotransmission. Furthermore, we found that the secretion of BDNF from cortical neurons was suppressed by PCP. We also confirmed that PCP-caused downregulation of Trk signalings and synaptic proteins were restored by exogenous BDNF application. It is possible that impaired secretion of BDNF and subsequent decreases in Trk signaling are responsible for the loss of synaptic connections caused by PCP.
, Christian Knöchel, Anna Rotarska-Jagiela, Britta Reinke, David Prvulovic, Corinna Haenschel, Harald Hampel,
Published: 1 January 2012
Cerebral Cortex, Volume 23, pp 61-70; https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhr380

Abstract:
The current study provides a complete magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis of thickness throughout the cerebral cortical mantle in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and rigorously screened and matched unaffected relatives and controls and an assessment of its relation to psychopathology and subjective cognitive function. We analyzed 3D-anatomical MRI data sets, obtained at 3 T, from 3 different subject groups: 25 SZ patients, 29 first-degree relatives, and 37 healthy control subjects. We computed whole-brain cortical thickness using the Freesurfer software and assessed group differences. We also acquired clinical and psychometric data. The results showed markedly reduced cortical thickness in SZ patients compared with controls, most notably in the frontal and temporal lobes, in the superior parietal lobe and several limbic areas, with intermediate levels of cortical thickness in relatives. In both patients and relatives, we found an association between subjective cognitive dysfunction and reduced thickness of frontal cortex, and predisposition toward hallucinations and reduced thickness of the superior temporal gyrus. Our findings suggest that changes in specific cortical areas may predispose to specific symptoms, as exemplified by the association between temporal cortex thinning and hallucinations.
, Marek Kubicki, Martha E. Shenton
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment, Volume 2011, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/709523

Abstract:
A fundamental tenet of the “disconnectivity” theories of schizophrenia is that the disorder is ultimately caused by abnormal communication between spatially disparate brain structures. Given that the white matter fasciculi represent the primary infrastructure for long distance communication in the brain, abnormalities in these fiber bundles have been implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that enables the visualization of white matter macrostructurein vivo, and which has provided unprecedented insight into the existence and nature of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. The paper begins with an overview of DTI and more commonly used diffusion metrics and moves on to a brief review of the schizophrenia literature. The functional implications of white matter abnormalities are considered, particularly with respect to myelin's role in modulating the transmission velocity of neural discharges. The paper concludes with a speculative hypothesis about the relationship between gray and white matter abnormalities associated with schizophrenia.
, Gorazd Rosoklija, Branislav Mancevski, , Khadija Figarsky, Cynthia Bleiwas, Aleksej Duma, J. John Mann, Daniel C. Javitt, Andrew J. Dwork
Published: 30 April 2011
Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, Volume 192, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2010.11.007

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, , Steven Ziebell, Ronald Pierson,
Archives of General Psychiatry, Volume 68, pp 128-137; https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.199

Abstract:
Schizophrenia, a common mental illness affecting 1% of the worldwide population, remains a leading cause of chronic disability among young adults.1 Antipsychotic medications are the mainstay of treatment because there is strong empirical evidence that these drugs reduce psychotic symptomsand relapse rates in schizophrenia patients.2 Even though the majority of patients receive antipsychotics and benefit from reduction in psychotic symptoms, many patients continue to have negative symptoms, cognitive impairments, and progressive brain tissue loss.3-13 The causes underlying these brain abnormalities are unclear and have been a focus of much debate14,15 and many literature reviews.16,17
Published: 15 January 2011
Biological Psychiatry, Volume 69, pp 113-126; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.04.030

Abstract:
The challenges involved in identifying the neuropathological substrates of the clinical syndrome recognized as schizophrenia are well known. Stereological sampling provides a means to obtain accurate and precise quantitative estimates of components of neural circuits and thus offers promise of an enhanced capacity to detect subtle alterations in brain structure associated with schizophrenia. In this review, we 1) consider the importance and rationale for robust quantitative measures of brain abnormalities in postmortem studies of schizophrenia; 2) provide a brief overview of stereological methods for obtaining such measures; 3) discuss the methodological details that should be reported to document the robustness of a stereological study; 4) given the constraints of postmortem human studies, suggest how to approach the limitations of less robust designs; and 5) present an overview of methodologically sound stereological estimates from postmortem studies of schizophrenia.
Paul J. Harrison, , Joel E. Kleinman Md
Published: 10 December 2010
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, Liesl B. Jones
Published: 31 August 2010
Journal of Psychiatric Research, Volume 44, pp 694-699; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2009.12.006

Abstract:
Increasing evidence suggests that there may be significant morphological changes in the neuropil of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. A controversial issue surrounding these deficits in the cortical neuropil is the confounding effects of antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication as well as the question of generality to psychiatric disorders. To begin to address these issues we examined brains from Huntington's patients matched to a cohort of schizophrenics and controls. Many Huntington's patients take neuroleptics similar to schizophrenics; therefore, by comparing the two groups to controls we can begin to determine if neuroleptics play a role in the deficits reported in schizophrenia. Using MAP2 immunohistochemistry and thionin staining eight matched triplets of Huntington, schizophrenia and control, in areas 9 and 17 layers III and V were analyzed. Our results confirmed previous published data showing a schizophrenia-associated decrease in MAP2 in area 9 with no change in area 17. Similarly the Huntington's patients showed no change in area 9 layer III and no change in area 17. There was however, a modest decrease observed in layer V area 9 of the Huntington's patients. Neuron density measurements showed no change in either layer or brain region in any of the diagnostic categories. These observations suggest that antipsychotic medication may not be responsible for some of the morphological changes observed in the neuropil of the PFC in schizophrenia.
, Marek Kubicki, , , Rebecca King, Jorge L. Alvarado, Usman Khan, Douglas Markant, Paul G. Nestor, Margaret Niznikiewicz, et al.
Published: 1 July 2010
Biological Psychiatry, Volume 68, pp 70-77; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.03.025

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Kristen M. Delevich, Michael J. Marcsisin, Wei Zhang, Allan R. Sampson, Hans Jørgen G. Gundersen, ,
Published: 18 August 2009
Brain Research, Volume 1285, pp 42-57; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2009.06.019

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, Paul W. Burgess, B.S. Yashavantha, Mohammed K. Shakeel, , Sanjeev Jain
Published: 30 April 2009
Schizophrenia Research, Volume 109, pp 148-158; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2008.12.019

Abstract:
Brodmann's area (BA) 10, which occupies the frontal pole (FP) of the human brain, has been proven to play a central role in the executive control of cognitive operations. Previous in vivo morphometric studies of the FP have been limited by the lack of an accepted boundary of its posterior limit. We studied the FP gray matter volume in 23 healthy subjects who were age-, sex-, and education-matched to 23 neuroleptic-naïve recent-onset schizophrenia subjects in the age span 20–40 years, using a cytoarchitectonically and functionally valid landmark-based definition of its posterior boundary that we proposed recently (John, J.P., Yashavantha, B.S., Gado, M., Veena, R., Jain, S., Ravishankar, S., Csernansky, J.G., 2007. A proposal for MRI-based parcellation of the frontal pole. Brain Struct. Funct. 212, 245–253. 2007). Additionally, we examined the relationship between FP volume and age in both healthy and schizophrenia subjects to examine evidence for a possible differential relationship between these variables across the samples. A major finding of the study was the absence of a group-level difference in frontal pole gray volumes between the healthy and schizophrenia participants. However, a more complex finding emerged in relation to age effects. The healthy participants showed an inverse relationship of FP gray volume with age, even after taking total brain volume differences into account. But this age effect was completely absent in the schizophrenia group. Moreover, all the volumetric measures in schizophrenia subjects showed substantially higher range, variance, skewness and kurtosis when compared to those of healthy subjects. These findings have implications in understanding the possible role of FP in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
Daqiang Sun, , Dennis Velakoulis, , Patrick D. McGorry, , Theo G.M. van Erp, , Arthur W. Toga, , et al.
Published: 31 March 2009
Schizophrenia Research, Volume 108, pp 85-92; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2008.11.026

Abstract:
Schizophrenia and related psychoses are associated with brain structural abnormalities. Recent findings in ‘at risk’ populations have identified progressive changes in various brain regions preceding illness onset, while changes especially in prefrontal and superior temporal regions have been demonstrated in first-episode schizophrenia patients. However, the timing of the cortical changes and their regional extent, relative to the emergence of psychosis, has not been clarified. We followed individuals at high-risk for psychosis to determine whether structural changes in the cerebral cortex occur with the onset of psychosis. We hypothesized that progressive volume loss occurs in prefrontal regions during the transition to psychosis.
Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery, Volume 4, pp 257-278; https://doi.org/10.1517/17460440902762794

Abstract:
The development of new treatment alternatives for schizophrenia has been prevented by the unknown etiology of the illness and the divergence of results in the field. However, consistent neuropathological findings are emerging from anatomical areas known to be at the core of schizophrenia. If these deficiencies are replicated in animal models then such anomalies could become the target for a new generation of drugs. To determine if the methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) model, the heterozygote reeler mouse (HRM) and NMDA-antagonists treated rats replicate neuropathological deficits encountered in patients with schizophrenia and to establish if such changes could lead the search for developing novel treatment alternatives. Databases including MEDLINE, Cochrane and Ovid were searched; search terms included neuropathology, schizophrenia and animal models. NMDA-antagonist treated animals partially replicate schizophrenia anomalies in parvalbumin positive interneurons. In contrast, neuroanatomical deficiencies replicated by the MAM model and the HRM in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex seem promising targets for future pharmacological research in schizophrenia. Such neuroanatomical findings along with evidence from molecules and genes associated with schizophrenia suggest new drugs should aim to correct deficits in the formation of dendrites and axons that seems to be implicated in this illness pathophysiology.
, M.V. Porkess, N. Dashdorj, ,
Published: 3 March 2009
Neuroscience, Volume 159, pp 21-30; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.12.019

Abstract:
Rearing rats in social isolation from weaning induces robust behavioral and neurobiological alterations resembling some of the core symptoms of schizophrenia, such as reduction in prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (PPI) and locomotor hyperactivity in a novel arena. The aim of this study was to investigate whether social isolation rearing induces volumetric remodeling of the limbic system, and to probe for anatomical structure–behavioral interrelations.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.3389/neuro.09.033.2009

Abstract:
Schizophrenia is characterized by cortical circuit abnormalities, which might be reflected in γ-frequency (30–100 Hz) oscillations in the electroencephalogram. Here we used a computational model of cortical circuitry to examine the effects that neural circuit abnormalities might have on γ generation and network excitability. The model network consisted of 1000 leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with realistic connectivity patterns and proportions of neuron types [pyramidal cells (PCs), regular-spiking inhibitory interneurons, and fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs)]. The network produced a γ oscillation when driven by noise input. We simulated reductions in: (1) recurrent excitatory inputs to PCs; (2) both excitatory and inhibitory inputs to PCs; (3) all possible connections between cells; (4) reduced inhibitory output from FSIs; and (5) reduced NMDA input to FSIs. Reducing all types of synaptic connectivity sharply reduced γ power and phase synchrony. Network excitability was reduced when recurrent excitatory connections were deleted, but the network showed disinhibition effects when inhibitory connections were deleted. Reducing FSI output impaired γ generation to a lesser degree than reducing synaptic connectivity, and increased network excitability. Reducing FSI NMDA input also increased network excitability, but increased γ power. The results of this study suggest that a multimodal approach, combining non-invasive neurophysiological and structural measures, might be able to distinguish between different neural circuit abnormalities in schizophrenia patients. Computational modeling may help to bridge the gaps between post-mortem studies, animal models, and experimental data in humans, and facilitate the development of new therapies for schizophrenia and neuropsychiatric disorders in general.
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