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, Rashed Al Karim, Wardha Habiba
International Journal of Bank Marketing; doi:10.1108/ijbm-12-2020-0607

Purpose The present study investigates the moderating role of customer trust in customer relationship management (CRM) components and customer loyalty relationships in the context of the baking sector in Bangladesh. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected through a survey using a structured questionnaire from 350 customers of commercial banks in Bangladesh. Findings The key finding is that all CRM components (customer orientation, customer advocacy and customer knowledge) except customer engagement have positive impact on customer loyalty. Moreover, customer trust only moderates the relationship between customer knowledge and customer loyalty, whereas other CRM components and customer loyalty do not moderate by trust. Originality/value The findings of the study add to the substantial pool of knowledge on CRM components, customer trust and customer loyalty literature. More specifically, the moderating role of customer trust between customer knowledge and customer loyalty is the novel contribution of this research which will enrich the existing CRM literature particularly in the banking sector of Bangladesh.
Bharati Grace Ebenezer Peters, Usha Tiwari
PARIPEX INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH pp 45-47; doi:10.36106/paripex/0305012

INTRODUCTION:Customer satisfaction is an important aspect for any organisation.Satisfied customers,ensure loyalty to the organisation.Building customer loyalty has an advantage (Bansal and Gupta,2001).Much academic research has taken place in this field (Stenbery, 1997).The concept of Happiness has been around for centuries. Early philosophers and great thinkers,date back to Aristotle,Plato and Socrates,in the western world and,closer to home we have Buddha, with his Middle Path; Confucius and the Dalai Lama. Satisfaction denotes less stress, which can lead to health, whereas happiness indicates not just health but exceeding customers' expectation too. OBJECTIVE:The review was done mainly through published articles to gain an insight in the areas of happiness and satisfaction and their measurements. METHODOLOGY: The review used descriptive cross-sectional research design using secondary sources related to satisfaction and happiness. Very few studies have focused on the patient in terms of both satisfaction as well as happiness.The review mainly identified concepts of satisfaction and happiness, for services in industry and was then related to the healthcare industry. RESULTS:A lot of efforts went into the concept of Satisfaction;however,Happiness was the new trend. CONCLUSION: The healthcare industry is unique, and management and delivery of customer experience service excellence is the ultimate goal.
Dokun Oluwajana, Ibrahim Adeshola, Gbolahan Olowu
Published: 25 May 2021
Journal of Public Affairs; doi:10.1002/pa.2701

Social media and customer relationships have become ubiquitous, and every organization now depends on both to manage and meet their organizational targets. Most organizations are now finding it necessary to adopt Social Customer Relationship Management (SCRM) to improve their marketing strategies and facilitate customer expectation of continuity. In essence, there has been a public interest in using SCRM on eco-friendly brands, and these have become inevitable for the new generation of sustainable marketing organizations. This study investigates the effectiveness of SCRM benefits and examines the relationships among customer commitment, customer trust, customer relationship satisfaction, customer relationship quality, and expectation of continuity. The results revealed that relationship benefits positively influence commitment, trust, satisfaction, and relationship quality; likewise, they influence customer expectation of continuity, except trust, which is not significant. The study provides recommendations for managers to maximize the advantages of the relationship to the expectation of continuity.
International Journal of Hospitality Management, Volume 95; doi:10.1016/j.ijhm.2021.102944

The emerging field of trust has evolved dramatically with an increasing number of academic publications in this area. However, there is a lack of better clarification to draw a global picture of scientific knowledge, from a statistical perspective, using the three structures of knowledge: conceptual, intellectual, and social, to obtain a structured overview of its characteristics, identify dynamic aspects and find intellectual representations. This paper presents a new insight into scientific production through bibliometric (Bibliometrix) and network (VOSviewer) analysis, not previously fully clarified in hospitality and tourism. A total of 305 articles published between 2004 and 2020 were analyzed, covering 580 authors, 19 journals, and 43 countries. This research’s main findings showed that trust is one of the most decisive variables in the digital market, and keywords such as satisfaction, loyalty, service quality are closely related. The results provide clues for further investigation in this field.
Aviv Kidron
Published: 21 January 2021
International Journal of Bank Marketing, Volume 39, pp 167-188; doi:10.1108/ijbm-07-2020-0360

Purpose This study identifies predictors of customers' trust in banks at both the banking system level and toward individual banks. A mixed methods technique is utilized which combines both customers' and bankers' perspectives. Design/methodology/approach The study utilizes mixed methods, including a questionnaire survey of 1017 bank customers from retail banks, together with qualitative research derived from ten interviews with Israeli bankers. Findings The quantitative study shows that transparency is mediated between perception of price fairness and integrity of the banking system level and trust toward individual banks. Customer satisfaction was found to be a mediator between integrity of the banking system and trust in the individual bank. Qualitative analysis of interviews with bankers yielded six themes: integrity, transparency, price perception, service, bank image and regulation. Research limitations/implications This study adumbrates specific aspects of the banking system and of individual banks. Cultural differences pertaining to trust might validate the findings when the study is replicated in other countries. Originality/value Since customers are universally considered as key bank stakeholders, insights are provided concerning determinants at the banking system level and toward individual banks, both crucial to explain trust. From both managerial and policymaking perspectives, this study contains valuable practical implications.
Toussaint Ciza Bugandwa, Eddy Balemba Kanyurhi, Deogratias Bugandwa Mungu Akonkwa, Benjamin Haguma Mushigo
Published: 13 January 2021
International Journal of Bank Marketing, Volume 39, pp 592-617; doi:10.1108/ijbm-04-2020-0209

Purpose This paper has two purposes. First is to operationalise the concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and trust in the context of a developing country, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Second purpose is to test in a disaggregated perspective the impact of each CSR dimension on trust. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 264 customers of six banks and processed with exploratory, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equations using LISREL 9.1. Findings CSR is found to have five dimensions: legal responsibility, social needs responsibility, product responsibility, environmental responsibility and employee responsibility; trust is found to be a three-dimensional construct: integrity, compassion and partnership. Each CSR dimension has a positive impact on customers' perception of trustworthiness. Research limitations/implications Reliability of trust is not high enough, suggesting the need to deepen research in order to find a more adapted CSR scale for banks. The smallness of sample size might have influenced the robustness of our psychometric results. CSR and trust relationships might be analysed in a more enriched framework including service quality, reputation and banks' employee performance as moderating variables. This paper has measured the two concepts from the customers' perspective only. However, both CSR and trust are best understood in a stakeholder perspective. So, it might be insightful to extend future research in a stakeholder orientation perspective. Practical implications Banks from developing countries are also concerned with CSR and should invest in it. Clearly, each dimension of CSR should receive enough importance if Congolese banks are to recover their customers' trust. The findings of the study also suggest that banks' customers are aware of the necessity for banks to comply with the country's legislation. Non-compliance can have severe influence on customers' trustworthiness to banks. Social implications Financial institutions are generally evaluated through financial indicators. The findings suggest that banks customers and other stakeholders begin a shift towards requiring their banks to invest in social and environmental activities in order to improve their local milieu. These aspects are still very neglected, or adopted only as marketing strategies to improve image, without a true willingness to be socially responsive. Originality/value The two concepts are measured in a context where they did not receive enough importance (developing country), hence providing new knowledge in the field. Further, a disaggregated approach allowed understanding the way each CSR dimension impacts trust, which had not been the case in previous research.
Published: 31 December 2020
Sustainability, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/su13010300

The main aim of this paper is to analyze the influence of service companies’ corporate social responsibility (CSR) actions on final customer’s loyalty. A theoretical model of loyalty formation based on CSR was proposed and a sample of 1125 final customers of financial services in Spain was studied. Structural equation models were used to verify the hypothesized relationships. Based on the CSR theory oriented to stakeholders, this work justifies the direct and positive relationship between the perception of CSR actions in the shopping experience and customer trust. We also verified a positive indirect influence on loyalty. The services industry was chosen to conduct this research due to its own particularities (intangibility, inseparability, heterogeneity and perishability). As it is impossible to evaluate a service before its consumption, a high level of trust in the supplier will be necessary to motivate the purchase decision. We conclude that CSR becomes a key strategic asset for determining trust and loyalty among consumers. As major findings, we have verified the special importance of CSR in the services market. CSR improves customer trust in the service provider. Thus, this paper has significant managerial implications. Through CSR strategies, both the perception of the customer’s purchasing experience and trust can be enhanced, resulting in more loyal customers. As a limitation, this research was carried out among financial services. Further research should test the model across different industries and countries in order to determine the generalizability and consistency of the findings of this study.
Published: 31 October 2020
Sustainability, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/su12219088

Service quality perceived by clients should be a crucial element in the process of co-creating sustainable services. This article aimed to examine relationships between five constructs: the usefulness of courier services, the ease of use of courier services, the trust in courier services, the service quality, and the future intention to use courier services. This research focuses on courier services. An electronic questionnaire was used to conduct confidential interviews. It was distributed between January and March 2019. The number of questionnaires returned by courier service customers amounted to 1073. The authors used generalized least squares (GLS) of structural equation modelling (GLS-SEM) to verify the hypotheses. The obtained results confirmed statistically significant relationships between the variables of the ease of use and the trust in service, the usefulness and the trust in service, the trust in service and the service quality and finally, the service quality and the future intention to use the services. The obtained results confirmed an important role of technological aspects in courier service quality, which will become the main determinant of the development of this sector in the future. The authors proposed a new approach to the definition of trust in service. Apart from the interpersonal trust, they shed more light on the trust in the supplier, i.e., the trust in the used technologies.
Shahzeb Hussain, T. C. Melewar, Constantinos-Vasilios Priporas, Pantea Foroudi, Waleed Yusef
Published: 12 October 2020
Corporate Reputation Review; doi:10.1057/s41299-020-00107-z

Aviv Kidron, Yvonne Kreis
International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, Volume 12, pp 355-370; doi:10.1108/ijqss-10-2019-0120

Purpose In banking services, trust is crucial to any relational exchange situation. Using the example of Israeli banks, the main research question driving this paper is – What are the reasons for trusting or not trusting banks? To date, few studies have examined the reasons of ongoing low trust during so-called “normal times”. Design/methodology/approach This paper is unique in approaching the study of customer trust in banks through qualitative analysis by using the interdisciplinary trust approach. Findings The results offer important insights regarding situational normality, structural assurance and customers’ tendencies to trust the bank. The insights about trust derived from this complicated relationship between customers and banks reveals that customers grow dissatisfied and their level of trust consequently decreases when they perceive an imbalance in the exchange relationship with their bank. Originality/value This study provides novel insights into hidden attitudes and feelings behind each component of trust beliefs in the bank–customer trust relationship through interdisciplinary trust perspective.
, Eva-Maria Schön
Published: 22 August 2020
Data-driven Marketing pp 257-281; doi:10.1007/978-3-658-29995-8_12

Menschen sind seit Jahrzehnten davon fasziniert, Maschinen mit menschlichem Bewusstsein zu erschaffen. Künstliche Intelligenz (KI) trifft genau diesen Nerv und stößt aber gerade deshalb auf Misstrauen. Die zunehmende Entwicklung innovativer Produkte, die auf KI basieren, führen zu einer Erleichterung im Alltag der Menschen sowie zu einer Revolution der Arbeitswelt. Zum anderen erzeugen Medienberichte über Datenmissbrauch, Abhöraktionen und über die KI als Gefahr für die Menschheit Misstrauen. Dies kann in eine ablehnende Haltung gegenüber dem technologischen Fortschritt resultieren. Ziel dieses Artikels ist es, einen Beitrag zum Aufbau eines berechtigten digitalen Vertrauens zu leisten. Hierzu werden Kenntnisse zu humanen Vertrauensquellen und -mustern zusammengeführt und ein Trust-Journey-Ansatz zum Vertrauensaufbau für das Marketing entwickelt. Implikationen einer spezifischen KI-Trust-Journey werden am Beispiel von Voice User Interfaces (VUI) wie z. B. Amazon Alexa, Tmall Genie von Alibaba, Alice und Google Home konkretisiert. Abschließend werden Prinzipien des digitalen Vertrauensaufbaus empfohlen, um Marken und innovative, digitale Produkte aus der Vertrauensperspektive zu stärken und die wesentliche Rolle des Marketings in der menschzentrierten digitalen Produktentwicklung herauszuarbeiten.
Published: 11 August 2020
European Management Review, Volume 18, pp 151-166; doi:10.1111/emre.12417

The current study, conceptualizing corporate social responsibility (CSR) under the stakeholder theory, investigates the impact of CSR activities oriented to customers, employees and society/environment on customer trust and advocacy attitudes and behaviors in the Greek and Bulgarian telecommunication sectors. The results of surveys conducted in each country indicate that the pattern of a universal consumer is yet not a reality. Bulgarian customers appear more willing to trust responsible businesses and more likely to reciprocate a trustworthy relationship through repurchase behavior and willingness to recommend than their Greek counterparts. Moreover, customer trust holds a stronger position as a mediator in the Bulgarian sample. In both countries, however, customers seem to evaluate and be affected by, CSR actions in terms of their role not only as consumers but also as social actors. The study's findings provide useful guidance for the efficient management and communication of CSR initiatives globally and future academic inquiries.
Khurram Sharif, Norizan Kassim, Mohd. Nishat Faisal, Mohamed Zain
Published: 8 July 2020
EuroMed Journal of Business, Volume 16, pp 39-68; doi:10.1108/emjb-03-2020-0020

Purpose This paper examined the deterministic and moderating impacts of skill on the behavioural (benevolence) and cognitive (credibility) dimensions of trust within small-to-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) upstream (i.e. supplier-to-customer) relationships. A theoretically grounded research model was developed that comprised of three cognitive and three behavioural antecedents of benevolence and credibility. Impact of time (i.e. chronological influences) on skill-driven bi-dimensional trust development was assessed as well. Design/methodology/approach All measures were borrowed from top ranking journals and adapted for use. An online questionnaire-based survey was conducted with UK SMEs executives who were involved in electrical and electronic components industry. A total of 231 useable questionnaires were received which represented a response rate of 15.4%. After validity and reliability checks, the collected data were subjected to partial least square analysis to verify the deterministic and/or moderating impact of skill on bi-dimensional trust. Findings The results supported a dual role (a moderator and a determinant) of skill on SMEs upstream relationship trust. However, the moderating effect of skill dominated the deterministic effect. Furthermore, the results indicated that skill tends to behave differently toward cognitive and behavioural dimensions of trust. Hence, how skill development is influenced by different dimensions of trust, and the role time plays in skill-driven trust enhancement should be carefully considered in SME upstream relationships. Therefore, it is suggested that the nature and context of each supplier–customer relational episode should be examined in terms of the outcomes it is designed to achieve in a relationship. Originality/value This study evaluated an in-depth association between skill and bi-dimensional trust development within SME upstream relationships. Specifically, deterministic and moderating impacts of skill on credibility and benevolence were investigated.
, Kira Gruenewald,
The Service Industries Journal, Volume 40, pp 1031-1063; doi:10.1080/02642069.2020.1779225

Research has revealed service industries’ benefits from customer trust including positive effects on commitment, loyalty, sales effectiveness, and collaborative, cooperative, and successful exchange relationships. Yet, despite the relevance of customer trust, gaps remain in our understanding regarding its implications and effective management. Commencing with a consideration of the theoretical foundations of trust, this theoretical review paper highlights the key trust theories synthesising service industries and management literatures on trust, its levels, development, violations, and repair. Drawing on this, recommendations are offered for scholars regarding future research as well as for service firms and their representatives regarding enabling customer trust.
Rosmayani, Annisa Mardatillah
Published: 21 April 2020
Journal of Islamic Marketing, Volume 11, pp 1419-1441; doi:10.1108/jima-09-2018-0159

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of company brand image on consumer confidence in the online purchase of Muslim fashion products, to assess the influence of company brand image on Muslim fashion online behavior and to assess the influence of the company brand image on the intention to behave online on Muslim fashion products through consumer trust. Design/methodology/approach This paper’s objective is to study the e-marketing online sales of Muslim fashion products. This paper is descriptive verification in nature. The paper is carried out through data collection in the field. Descriptive survey methods and explanatory survey methods were used in its implementation. The sample of this paper is a group of 97 UIR FISIPOL students who have purchased Muslim fashion products online. Structural equation modeling is used as a natural analysis in this paper. Findings Brand image has a significant effect on consumer trust which has been proven by the value of t-count being greater than the value of t-table. Simultaneously, brand image and consumers’ trust have a significant effect on intention to behave which has been proven by the value of F-count being greater than the value of F-table. Simultaneously, brand image and consumers’ trust have a significant effect on intention to behave which has been proven by the t-count value being greater than the value of F-table. By using mediation test, it has been revealed that consumers’ trust cannot mediate the brand image on the intention to behave significantly. The magnitude of the influence of brand image on consumer trust is 0.482, the effect of consumer trust on intention to behave is 0.239, while the effect of brand image on intention to behave through consumer trust is 0.077. Hence, the total influence jointly is 0.797. Originality/value This is one of the few papers that investigate the model of behavioral intentional of online purchase of Muslim clothing products. Fashion products are important for teenagers because they like to present themselves through their appearance. Fashion products are fashion clothing, including all accessories such as belts, shoes, hat, bag, socks and underwear. Watches and cell phones can also be products that have their own mode; it is not surprising if some people consider them as fashion products.
Masood Ul Hassan, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal, Ume Habibah
Published: 1 April 2020
SAGE Open, Volume 10; doi:10.1177/2158244020924412

Self-service technologies (SSTs) fervently impact customer’s interaction with service firms to foster positive outcomes. This study intends to inspect the impact of SSTs service quality on loyalty and behavioral intention of Pakistani SSTs users directly and indirectly through technology trust. By using an anonymous survey questionnaire, this study collected the data from a sample of 421 mobile banking application users. This study applied structural equation modeling (SEM) by using the AMOS. Results revealed the partial mediation of technology trust between SSTs service quality and behavioral intention and loyalty. Finally, this study also provided theoretical and practical implications as well as limitations and directions for future research.
, Nor’Ain Othman
Travel and Tourism: Sustainability, Economics, and Management Issues pp 49-68; doi:10.1007/978-981-10-7068-6_3

International tourism trade shows are an essential instrument for the marketing of goods and services. Trade shows establish direct relationships between supply and demand and provide the opportunity for specific marketing activities. A growing body of academic and practitioner trade show literature has highlighted the relationship between trade show marketing strategies and trade show performance. However, the effect of exhibitor experience on the international trade show marketing strategy and performance relationship has not been addressed in the literature. This paper, therefore, fills the research gap by examining the moderating role of exhibitors’ trust, commitment, and satisfaction during their trading experience at selected trade shows. The purpose of this study is (1) to identify the experiential marketing concepts at international tourism trade shows, (2) to determine the dimensions of exhibitors’ trading experience at international tourism trade shows, (3) to develop a conceptual framework regarding the relationship between the exhibitors’ trading experience and trade show performance, and (4) to propose a new perspective on exhibitors’ performance at international trade shows from an experimental point of view. A theoretical model of the effect that exhibitors’ experience has on trade show performance was developed, drawing on research regarding exhibitor behavior, experiential marketing, government support, and trade show performance. A questionnaire consistent with a positivist methodology was developed and tested, data was collected from 100 respondents, and structural equation modeling was used to test the theoretical and other competing models. This study provides an initial understanding of the nature of exhibitors’ experiences at international trade shows. By reporting exhibitor responses, this study also contributes to research on trade show performance.
Roisin Vize, Tara Rooney, Lesley E. Murphy
Published: 1 January 2020
Advances in E-Business Research pp 39-69; doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-1879-3.ch003

This chapter explores the concept of trust and issues relating to how the construct is conceptualised and understood in a traditional offline context as well as in online environments. The chapter opens with a mini case study that highlights the complexities of being a privately-owned small firm operating in a dynamic and largely unregulated web environment. The firm is relatively new to the financial sector thus augmenting the challenges that lie in reducing perceived risk in an industry that has a chequered history with customer perceptions of credibility and integrity in the financial services sector. The chapter introduces the theoretical underpinning, which draws from the trust theories and technology adoption at firm level, which is critiqued through the lens of the technology acceptance model. Concepts related to institution-based trust are discussed and managerial implications are considered for pure play firms operating online. Each section of the chapter explores these theoretical perspectives from a FinTech context.
Published: 3 October 2019
Sustainability, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/su11195480

Farmers’ markets in Taiwan advocate for the sustainable consumption of locally produced food to support sustainability and social justice goals. Institutional trust and interpersonal trust are critical determinative factors in sustaining farmers’ farm-to-consumer venues for the long-run. The purpose of this research was to investigate determinants of customers’ actual purchase behaviors, and the relationships between trust, purchase intention, and actual purchase behavior in the context of farmers’ markets. A questionnaire approach with closed-ended survey questions was conducted with customers in farmers’ markets in different parts of Taiwan. The results revealed that both institutional and interpersonal trust could serve as driving forces influencing a consumer’s purchase intentions, which in turn reinforces their actual purchase behavior. Specifically, the interpersonal trust between consumers and producers includes positive interactions and sufficient communication, enabling producers to share the value and concepts underlying their production processes with the consumers, enhancing customers’ purchase intentions and intensity. Institutional trust generated from a producer’s endeavor to improve the quality of their own products by meeting market standards would impress consumers and build loyalty. It is recommended that farmers’ market farmers or managers continually examine both the institutional and interpersonal needs of customers (e.g., food safety, face-to-face interactions between farmers and consumers) to earn customers’ trust, and to accommodate their expectations by providing sufficient products and services.
Glenn Asano, Ting Pong Vincent Cheng, Joan Rhodes, Peter Lok
Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations, Volume 17, pp 30-43; doi:10.4018/jeco.2019100103

Using a restricted probability sample of 269 participants, the key findings were: (a) that negative online reviews have a higher negative impact on customer equity than positive online reviews; this is a significant finding because previous findings were mainly short-term focus (on willingness to purchase) and long-term measurement such as ‘customer equity' could provide management with new knowledge on negative online reviews; (b) ‘brand equity' driver has the greatest impact on customer equity as compared to the other two drivers (‘value' and ‘relationship'). This is a significant new finding which could assist management in redirecting its resources; (c) brand trust was unexpectedly found to have a negative relationship with the drivers of customer equity. This could be that long-term outcome as brand trust may prove to be difficult to measure in a cross-sectional study. Furthermore, online reviews have no significant relationship with ‘brand trust.' This may be that brand trust may be more important in short-term outcomes with online reviews.
Namporn Thanetsunthorn, Rattaphon Wuthisatian
Review of International Business and Strategy, Volume 29, pp 286-314; doi:10.1108/ribs-12-2018-0103

Purpose In today’s business world, trust is an essential ingredient for business success, as it serves as a foundation for enhancing a network of positive relationships among businesses, clients, employees and stakeholders. This study aims to shed light on a deeper and more substantial understanding of trust by examining the casual association between national culture and trust. Design/methodology/approach The study empirically investigates the extent to which cultural factors promote and constrain the level of trust using a mixed sample of 46 developed and developing countries observed over the period of 1990-2014. Findings The study provides new empirical evidence that trusting behavior is explained systematically by national culture. Countries with high individualistic and high long-term oriented cultures are the most favorable environment that fosters trust among people in society. In contrast, individuals from countries with the expression of high power distance and high uncertainty avoidance cultures appear to exhibit less trust in others. Practical implications The study provides managerial implications, especially for managers and management consultants in a global context, regarding the cultural relevance of trust in the new and foreign environment, and the effective management of trust among culturally diverse workforces and business relationships. In addition, the study should serve as a supplemental learning material in the business and management disciplines to demonstrate the essential role of trust in the global business environment. Originality/value The study adds to the existing body of knowledge on trust by offering new empirical insights into how culture plays an influential role in the creation of trust. This serves as a good starting point for academic scholars and practicing professionals to further develop appropriate management strategies and execution plans for managing trust across different cultural settings.
Faria Iram, Ammar Rashid, Muhammad Mahboob Kh,
Published: 15 September 2019
Asian Journal of Scientific Research, Volume 12, pp 488-495; doi:10.3923/ajsr.2019.488.495

Stephen J. Newell, Duke Leingpibul, Bob Wu, Yang Jiang
Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, Volume 34, pp 1506-1520; doi:10.1108/jbim-09-2018-0258

Purpose Women in many countries are breaking through the gender barrier and are working in positions where they have a major impact on the buying and selling activities in business-to-business relationships. A number of studies have investigated the role gender plays in driving perceptions of sales representatives in the USA, however, little research has been undertaken on this important topic in China, one of the largest and most influential countries. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to examine whether the gender of both the buyer and seller, affects perceptions of expertise, trust and loyalty in business relationships. Design/methodology/approach A survey instrument was developed, tested and used on individuals with purchasing responsibility in China. Confirmatory factor analysis was used in the pre-test and the final study data to develop and refine measurement instruments, assessing construct validity, identifying method effects and evaluating factor variance across groups. Independent t-tests were used to compare male and female buyers on their evaluation of sales reps. Findings The results indicate that the gender of the sales person does not seem to be a consideration for male buyers in evaluating reps in any of the variables tested. However, female buyers consistently give less favorable evaluations to female sales people than male sales representatives. The possible implications of these findings are discussed. Research limitations/implications First, this research uses a quantitative methodology in both the collection and analysis of the data. Thus, future studies may want to use a qualitative data set to gain a more in-depth understanding of the business-to-business relationships between men and women in the workplace. Also, as the study was concentrated on a relatively small number of business professionals from only one area in China, subsequently researchers should consider increasing the geographic domain where respondents are sampled, to help improve the generalizability of the results. Practical implications The gender bias by female buyers found in this study has several important implications for businesses in China. Specifically, the suggests that female buyers may carry with them a “collective negative bias” against other women, in this case, female sales reps. The solution to this problem is not to avoid assigning female sales reps to female buyers, rather, it is to change the negative collective social-esteem identity preconceptions. Organizations can do this through training by making women aware of their own predisposition to unfairly evaluate women that they interact with in the workplace. Originality/value It has been argued that gender plays a small role in perceptions of sales representatives in buyer-seller relationships. While this seems to be true in the USA, it has not (until now) been empirically tested in China. Somewhat surprisingly, the gender differences we did uncover are not from male...
, , Marta Estrada-Guillén
International Journal of Bank Marketing, Volume 38, pp 63-85; doi:10.1108/ijbm-11-2018-0307

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role of bank branch managers’ perceptions of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in CSR marketing outcomes. Design/methodology/approach The paper proposes a causal model establishing that managers’ perceptions of CSR influence the perception of CSR held by the branch’s customers, which in turn directly affects customer satisfaction, customer trust, customer engagement and customer loyalty. The unit of analysis in this quantitative study is the bank branch. Two questionnaires were administered: one to branch managers and another to five customers in each branch. Findings Branch managers’ perceptions of CSR have a marked influence on customers’ perceptions of CSR, which again have a notable impact on the relationship variables studied: customer satisfaction, customer trust, customer engagement and customer loyalty. Research limitations/implications The sample was taken from two banks in the same country (Spain) and only five customers were interviewed in each branch. The type of customers analyzed should be taken into account since a growing number of customers now carry out all of their banking online and are less likely to visit their branch. Practical implications The results highlight the importance of adopting socially responsible actions not only in the bank as a whole, but also in individual branches. It would, therefore, seem crucial for high level bank executives not only to involve branch managers in the bank’s CSR strategy, but also to empower them to undertake CSR actions that involve the customers and local community with which they interact. Originality/value First, the paper reveals the differences within the same organization in the way its CSR strategy is implemented. Second, intermediary figures or supervisors are shown to have a key role in ensuring the organization’s CSR strategy is effective. Third, the study emphasizes the importance of customers’ perception of CSR in achieving the main outcomes of relationship marketing (satisfaction, trust, engagement and loyalty). Fourth, the methodology applied in the study is innovative in its construction of dyads in which the branch is the unit of analysis, enabling a comparison between the manager’s perceptions of CSR with that of five customers from the same branch. Fifth, the findings add to the knowledge of a particularly relevant sector in the recent economic crisis, namely, the retail banking industry.
Nur Asnawi, Badri Munir Sukoco, Muhammad Asnan Fanani
Published: 17 July 2019
Journal of Islamic Marketing, Volume 11, pp 192-212; doi:10.1108/jima-03-2017-0033

Purpose Loyalty among customers is the baseline for services to use to grow and sustain their competitive advantage, particularly in the banking industry. There are two primary objectives of this research. First, this study aims to empirically test the Muslim Consumer Service Quality (MCSQ). Second, this study aims to test the mediating effect of Muslim Consumer Satisfaction (MCS) on the relationship between MCSQ and Muslim Consumer Loyalty (MCL) in Indonesian Islamic banks. Design/methodology/approach The proposed hypotheses were tested by collecting data from 280 Indonesian Islamic customers. The collected data were tested using PLS-Graph 3.0. Findings The findings indicate that MCSQ (consisting of Islamic values, Sharia compliance, honesty, modesty, humaneness and trustworthiness) positively influenced MCS and MCL significantly. Further, the results indicate that MCS partially mediates the influence of MCSQ on MCL. Research limitations/implications The data were mainly gathered in Indonesia and the model needs to be tested in other contexts. Furthermore, the questionnaire was distributed among the customers of Islamic banks, and future studies could compare it with the customers of conventional banks or dual account (Islamic and conventional bank) customers. Moreover, further studies should compare between the expectations and reality of the delivered services to understand the service quality gap, which this study did not measure. Practical implications The findings indicate that by measuring the service quality in the Islamic context of Islamic banks, such as MCSQ, the managers can design their services to specifically target their Muslim customers. Furthermore, customer satisfaction must be the focus for the bank’s managers when developing MCSQ to close the gap between the expectations and reality of the delivered services. Originality/value This study empirically tests the developed MCSQ in the context of Indonesian Islamic banks, which is expected to enrich the literature of service marketing. Furthermore, a partial mediation effect of MCS was identified on the influence of MCSQ on MCL, which few studies have discussed previously.
, Ellen Broström
Published: 9 July 2019
Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Volume 38, pp 151-166; doi:10.1108/mip-02-2019-0106

Purpose Customer feedback is believed to provide an important retailer metric. Notwithstanding, customer retention still presents a challenge in today’s increasingly digitalised business environment. The insurance industry has recently begun its digitalisation process and is struggling with customer retention. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the recurrent trends in the academic discourse surrounding this topic. Design/methodology/approach This narrative review has documented journal publications from January 2000 to February 2018, using the PRISMA statement. The Web of Science and SCOPUS databases were examined for prior studies of digitalisation and customer loyalty in an insurance setting. Findings The most recurrent themes were those deemed to be of most interest to the wider academic community and in greatest need of additional research. Expressed as a “conditional statement” this is summarised as: “IF [most recurring] THEN [need for further research]”. Most articles were published in UK-based journals, with most first authors listed in the USA as their country of origin. The articles most commonly discussed the need for “Proactive retention”, i.e. taking pre-emptive action to secure customer loyalty. This exposes a gap with extant theories on customer loyalty/customer retention, which favours customer feedback as an important metrics. Research limitations/implications The articles investigated were not ranked beyond mentioning the number of publications found in each respective journal, as to determine any distinguishable patterns of publication. Practical implications The need for studies on “Proactive retention” is likely desirable also in other areas than insurance. Originality/value The study exposes a gap in extant theory, which mostly discusses retention from a posteriori knowledge. However, most examined literature is actually calling for a priori knowledge.
Phineas Mbango Mbango, Vincent Makhubela
Journal of Business & Retail Management Research, Volume 13; doi:10.24052/jbrmr/v13is04/art-01

Commitment, Communication, Loyalty, Product quality, Repurchase, Satisfaction, Trust, Word-of-mouth The purpose of this research paper was to examine if product quality, trust, customer satisfaction and communication have a positive influence on customer loyalty. Furthermore, the research intended to determine the outcomes of customer loyalty in the Gauteng province of the South Africa leafy vegetable market. Data was collected through purposive and convenience sampling technique using self-administered questionnaires with the assistance of research assistants. A total of 367 respondents completed the questionnaires. A structural equation modelling technique using the partial least squares (PLS) approach was used to analyse the data. The results show that of the selected antecedents of customer loyalty examined, only customer satisfaction was identified as a significant determinant. With regard to the outcomes, the results show that commitment, word-of-mouth and repurchase intention are outcomes of customer loyalty in the South African leafy vegetable market. The implications for both academic and managerial decision makers are outlined.
Journal of Trust Research, Volume 9, pp 136-163; doi:10.1080/21515581.2019.1675074

In a rapidly changing and dynamic world, individuals’ propensity to trust is likely to become an increasingly important facet for understanding human behaviour, yet its measurement has mostly been unexplored. We undertake the first systematic qualitative survey of propensity to trust scales using qualitative meta-analysis methodology to review the literature (1966–2018) and identify 26 measures and their applications in 179 studies. Using content analysis, we thematically organise these scales into six thematic areas and discuss the emerging implications. We find that while most of these scales reflect propensity to trust in terms of a positive belief in human nature, other themes include general trust, role expectations, institutional trust, cautiousness and other personality attributes. We reveal significant methodological concerns regarding several scales and argue for more considered selection of scales for use in research. We examine the case for multidimensionality in measures of propensity to trust used within organisational research. Rather than treating a lack of generalisability of findings in existing organisational studies as purely a problem of measurement design, we instead outline an agenda for further conceptual and empirical study.
Industrial Management & Data Systems, Volume 119, pp 902-923; doi:10.1108/imds-12-2017-0598

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the dimensions of e-service quality, its effects on e-satisfaction and e-trust and its impact on behavioural and attitudinal loyalty in Jordanian youth users of online retailing. Design/methodology/approach The scale proposed in this study has been specifically constructed using the four models most recognised for measuring e-service quality: E-S-QUAL, WebQual, eTransQual and eTailQ. The dimensions used in this study are efficiency, privacy, reliability, emotional benefit and customer service. The research model was statistically tested by students in Jordan, using Findings It is found that privacy, reliability, emotional benefit and customer service are important elements to measure the e-service quality, but efficiency is not. E-trust was found to be an antecedent of e-satisfaction, and behavioural loyalty an antecedent of attitudinal loyalty. Originality/value The contribution of this study is thus the investigation of the causal relationship between the e-service quality dimensions, e-satisfaction, e-trust, behavioural loyalty and attitudinal loyalty, where it is necessary to consider the subject in more depth and to examine e-service quality dimensions based on a proposed model constructed from the four most common models.
, Tiziana Brenner Beauchamp Weber, Emerson Luiz Bomfim,
The Service Industries Journal, Volume 39, pp 779-798; doi:10.1080/02642069.2018.1561873

The aim of this systematic review is to identify how customer experience in the service sector has been measured in relevant publications in the marketing field. A sample of 33 papers was collected from two electronic databases—the Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) and Scopus (Elsevier)—covering a large number of publications. After analyzing the articles and reviewing the customer experience literature, the following are our main contributions: (i) clarification of the concepts that appear in the literature review of customer experience in the service sector; (ii) classification of the variables, scales, and constructs related to customer experience in service; (iii) demonstration of the service experience as the preponderant construct that is used to measure customer experience in service; and (iv) proposal of a new dimension—the concept of ‘pre-experience’—to measure customer experience in service. These contributions can provide a more solid basis for measuring customer experience in service.
Muhammed Ngoma, Peter Dithan Ntale
Published: 1 January 2019
Cogent Business & Management, Volume 6; doi:10.1080/23311975.2019.1580123

Published: 6 September 2018
International Journal of Bank Marketing, Volume 36, pp 1347-1366; doi:10.1108/ijbm-08-2017-0171

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the proposed relationships between perceived usefulness (a dimension of perceived value), the relationship quality factors (competence trust and continuous commitment) and positive word-of-mouth intentions in an electronic banking setting. Design/methodology/approach A survey was conducted among 511 electronic banking customers. Findings Continuous commitment was found to mediate the relationships between perceived usefulness and competence trust with positive word-of-mouth intention, respectively. Research limitations/implications The results indicate the role of perceived value and relationship quality in contributing to positive word-of-mouth intention. Practical implications The findings could also guide banking institutions in managing their existing electronic banking customers more appropriately and to encourage them to engage in word-of-mouth behaviour that will convince other potential users of the benefits of the service. Originality/value Little is known on a mediated model noting the connection between perceived value, the relationship quality factors competence trust and continuous commitment and positive word-of-mouth intention. The findings provide more insight into the matter and accordingly contribute to the developing body of knowledge on perceived value, relationship quality and behavioural intention and their importance to the stream of research on positive word of mouth.
Guðrún Erla Jónsdóttir
The Return of Trust? Institutions and the Public after the Icelandic Financial Crisis pp 129-149; doi:10.1108/978-1-78743-347-220181010

Competence, credibility, image and integrity all came under scrutiny during the economic crisis in Iceland. This period was not just about the financial system, it was about trust, something the Icelandic economy and individual businesses in the country lost in the wake of the crash. Reykjavík Energy, an Icelandic power- and utility-company, was one such company. In the year leading up to the economic crisis, mistrust in Reykjavík Energy had taken root and the firm’s image was already under attack. When its external debt doubled in the crash with the depreciation of the Icelandic króna, it was clear that the company’s position was unsustainable. In the years following the crisis, the rebuilding of the public’s trust in Reykjavík Energy has been a demanding task. The project of restoring trust and strengthening the firm was two-fold. On the one hand, short-term measures that were necessary to keep the company alive were taken. On the other hand, work was done to develop the foundations for long-term results and sustainable management. Reykjavík Energy, to a large extent, has now reclaimed its position in the eyes of its stakeholders. However, trust is not a constant but something that is earned over time and the challenge for the future is therefore to maintain it while learning from the past.
International Journal of Bank Marketing, Volume 36, pp 823-848; doi:10.1108/ijbm-03-2017-0054

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of trust in enhancing customer loyalty, and to test the mediation role of commitment and customer intimacy in the relationship between trust and customer loyalty. Design/methodology/approach A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed and 200 were returned (40 percent response rate), and a structural equation modeling technique was used to test the hypotheses. Findings The results of this study show that trust has a significant relationship with commitment and customer intimacy but no significant relationship was found with customer loyalty. Commitment and customer intimacy have a significant relationship with customer loyalty. The mediation analysis reveals that commitment and customer intimacy play a mediation role in the relationship between trust and customer loyalty. Practical implications This study indicates that commitment and customer intimacy affect customer loyalty. The role of commitment and customer intimacy as a mediator between trust and customer loyalty indicates that customers are committed to continuing and maintaining the relationships with Islamic banks. Originality/value This study provides empirical evidence on interrelationships between trust, commitment, customer intimacy and customer loyalty in banking relationships.
International Journal of Bank Marketing, Volume 36, pp 988-1007; doi:10.1108/ijbm-06-2017-0120

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a better understanding of the practical matter of customer loyalty (CLOY) in the banking industry context. As such, this paper explores, in detail, the antecedent factors to building strong CLOY. More specifically the focus is on the constructs of customer care (CARE), product/service offerings appeal (PSOA), customer satisfaction (CSAT) and brand trust (TRUS). Design/methodology/approach This wok relies purely on a positivist research paradigm. In doing so, structured questionnaires were administered to research subjects. For statistical processing, the PLS-SEM technique was deemed appropriate. Findings The two biggest takeaways of this work are the findings about the indirect influence of PSOA and CARE on CLOY. This paper reveals the relations to be sequentially mediated by CSAT and TRUS. Besides, data support the mediating effect of CSAT on CARE-TRUS link, as well as the mediation of TRUS on CSAT-CLOY link. Other findings indicate PSOA and CARE are key determinants of CSAT, CARE is also a key determinant of TRUS. Research limitations/implications There are limits that come with the present analysis. One of the major limits is in the fact that it was conducted in a single country’s setting, thus limiting the generalizability of the research findings. As a result, this research report merits to be adequately scrutinized in differing financial landscapes. Finally, the broader implication of this research is that the road toward achieving strong CLOY is far more complex than previously imagined. Practical implications To generate sustained CLOY, a solid starting point for bank products managers in particular is to design more attractive products for their target audiences. Meanwhile, the special role of quality CARE cannot be overstated (enough), and so managers should allocate more resources in this area. In sum, this study encourages financial services managers to continue to pay greater attention to critical dimensions related to CLOY, such as PSOA, CARE, CSAT and TRUS. Originality/value The present analysis provides a clearer explanation of how the above-mentioned constructs are interconnected together. By using top Ghanaian banks’ customers as a test case for the research, the authors are helping to develop a more balanced approach to achieving sustained CLOY. Finally, the value of this work rests in the complex relations studied
, Mushtaq A. Darzi,
Vikalpa: The Journal for Decision Makers, Volume 43, pp 92-105; doi:10.1177/0256090918774697

Executive Summary The competition among the organizations is increasing continuously and there has been a rapid shift in the business process deliverance. Financial service firms are striving to improve their business processes by liaising with customers to survive and compete successfully. The literature has obstinately emphasized on the utmost importance of trust and loyalty to survive in the financial sector. This study aims to explore the role of customer knowledge management (CKM) and satisfaction as antecedents of customer trust in the retail banking sector. The causal relationships existing between CKM, satisfaction, trust, and loyalty are explored. The mediating role of customer trust in the knowledge–loyalty and satisfaction–loyalty relationships is also explored. The data has been collected randomly from 412 customers of a private bank through survey by questionnaire. The research instrument has been developed and purified through factor analysis (confirmatory factor analysis). Structural equation modelling (SEM) has been employed to examine the causal relationship and fitness of the proposed model. The findings of the study reveal that CKM and satisfaction positively impact customer trust, and customer trust has a significant impact on loyalty. Besides, trust partially mediates the effect of knowledge and satisfaction on loyalty. The findings of the study are valuable to managers and strategists in understanding customer need in order to formulate the relevant customer loyalty programmes. However, the study focused on retail banking sector and uses data from a single bank only. Future research may evaluate the generalizability of findings across other banks as well as other nationalities. The main contribution of this study is to the loyalty literature by empirically validating the identified antecedents and demonstrating their role in managing loyalty. Furthermore, the study provides some valuable insights into the relational exchanges between variables wherein some inferences are derived from results regarding trust and loyalty.
International Journal of Bank Marketing, Volume 36, pp 456-481; doi:10.1108/ijbm-01-2017-0018

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze consumer trust during a financial crisis, studying its antecedents and consequences. The perceptions of older and younger consumers are also compared. Design/methodology/approach The theoretical model of trust formation is tested on a random sample of 634 individuals from the three largest Spanish cities, Madrid, Barcelona and Valencia, in a period of economic crisis. Structural equation models were used to verify the global hypothesized relationships. Additionally, the total sample was divided into two groups (younger and older consumers) in order to test the moderating effect of age in the proposed relationships. Findings In a period of financial crisis, older consumers’ trust is protected by an emotional and experiential shield from the effects of negative news in the surrounding environment. In contrast, trust, although important, is not the core variable for the younger segment, whose preferences are the consequence of a broad range of cognitive and emotional variables. Research limitations/implications This research was carried out on financial services. Emotional, relational and experience-linked variables acquire greater importance as the individual gets older, in contrast to more cognitive evaluations. The difference between the younger and the older segments is that the cornerstone of older consumers’ attitudinal loyalty is trust, whereas for younger people, it is positive switching costs or rewards. Further research on the proposed conceptual model across different industries and countries is needed to determine the generalizability and consistency of the findings from this study. Practical implications This paper has significant managerial implications. The authors believe that the best strategy for a bank during a period of crisis is to follow a customer-friendly orientation, as in the case of banks that took a long-term vision to look after their brand image. The study draws banking companies’ attention to the importance of using age as a segmentation criterion. Originality/value Based on the life-course paradigm, a theoretical model of trust formation is performed. In a period of economic crisis, trust becomes the key variable in determining older consumers’ preferences.
Published: 17 February 2018
Handbook of Healthcare Logistics pp 53-75; doi:10.1007/978-3-319-71691-6_3

Building and maintaining successful, long-term relationships is one of the crucial tasks in today’s financial sector, the idea being that loyal customers purchase more, demonstrate a higher willingness to spend, and act as advocates for the company. However, there is also some controversy on whether profitability indeed increases with customer loyalty. We will analyze the process of loyalty development and evaluate if and how customer loyalty (positively) affects profitability. We will do so with reference to a four stage sequential loyalty model that grounds on a chain of effects from cognitive loyalty, affective loyalty, conative loyalty to action loyalty. We will make use of PLS structural equation modeling and analyze data of almost 7000 customers of a German bank surveyed by telephone. These analyses will support practitioners in the banking and financial sector in setting-up and steering their customer retention strategies and will provide a theoretical contribution to validating one of the most prominent customer loyalty models.
Dian Anggraece Sigit Parawansa
Published: 12 February 2018
Journal of Management Development, Volume 37, pp 53-64; doi:10.1108/jmd-12-2016-0303

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of commitment and customer’s satisfaction on the relationship between service quality and customer retention. Design/methodology/approach The research was conducted on the entire customer rural banks (BPR) in Makassar, South Sulawesi Province; the sample size comprised 300 respondents. Analysis equipment used in this study is a quantitative approach that is inferential statistical analysis with structural equation modeling based variance is known as a method WarpPLS. Findings The results of the analysis show that there is significant influence between the variables of service quality, commitment, customer satisfaction, and customer retention. It was also found that the results of the variables commitment and customer satisfaction mediate the effect of service quality on customer’s retention. Originality/value The study showed the mediation effect (using the Sobel test) of service quality on customer retention using commitment and customer satisfaction as intervening variables in rural banks; and the study was conducted in the customer rural banks (BPR) in Makassar, South Sulawesi Province, where no such study for this relationship has been conducted previously.
Published: 8 February 2018
Journal of Services Marketing, Volume 32, pp 346-359; doi:10.1108/jsm-05-2017-0161

Purpose This paper aims to investigate how employees’ emotional competences affect customers’ responses in the context of emotional-driven and personalized services. Specifically, it proposes a model to analyze the influence of employees’ emotional competence on rapport, trust and loyalty toward the service employee and the company. Design/methodology/approach The empirical context to validate the proposed theory is the fitness realm. The sample comprises 296 clients from fitness personal training services. Data collection was carried out by means of personal surveys in three relevant fitness clubs in the city of Barcelona (Spain). The study uses partial least squares to test and validate the proposed theoretical model. Findings Employee emotional competence (EEC) directly affects personal loyalty, trust toward the service employee and rapport. However, higher levels of emotional skills are not significantly associated with loyalty toward the company. The results also suggest that trust significantly enhances loyalty. Interestingly, high levels of rapport between the service worker and the employee could even damage the level of loyalty toward the company. Originality/value Prior research documents that emotional intelligence enhances diverse positive customer outcomes, especially in emotionally charged interactions. Nonetheless, few studies have focused on analyzing how customers’ perceptions about services employees’ emotional skills are determining their attitudes and behavioral intentions. This study provides evidence on employee’s influences on consumer behaviors and outcomes, with a specific focus on EEC. It also sheds light on the unintuitive impact of customer employee rapport on loyalty toward the company.
Eric Viardot, Information Resources Management Association
Published: 1 January 2018
Fashion and Textiles pp 99-120; doi:10.4018/978-1-5225-3432-7.ch005

This chapter details the various strategies used by Zara, a leading apparel company, to manage and influence the behavior of its customers. The chapter starts with a brief history of Zara and an overview of the apparel industry. Then it details how Zara delivers realistic and achievable fashion for its customers, and it analyzes the revolutionary concept of “fresh” fashion that Zara has been the first to implement in the fashion business. Next, the chapter provides an in-depth analysis of the pivotal role of the store and the employees in the marketing strategy of Zara for managing and influencing its customers' purchasing behavior. Afterwards, the chapter considers the unique advertising and branding strategy of Zara and the influence of its strong and powerful brand on the fashion consumers. Finally, the chapter reflects on the challenges that Zara is currently facing with its expansion strategy in the Chinese market and on the Internet where consumers may have different expectations and behaviors.
Andriew Lim, Information Resources Management Association
Published: 1 January 2018
Mobile Commerce pp 1295-1302; doi:10.4018/978-1-5225-2599-8.ch061

Although e-commerce is growing rapidly, it has not achieved its potential. A survey shows that more than fifty percent of online carts are abandoned. This paper investigates the associated factors of trust that influence customers in conducting online transactions. Through relevant literature study and questionnaire, this paper shows that privacy and security significantly affect customers' interpersonal trust on online transactions. The lower the customer perception of risk, the more they are inclined to conduct online transactions. The quality of the website also affects the customers' trust on online transactions. These aspects are strongly correlated to the reputation of the online merchants, which implicates the success of e-commerce itself.
, Ana Carolina Vallejo
Sustainable and Responsible Entrepreneurship and Key Drivers of Performance pp 294-314; doi:10.4018/978-1-5225-3012-1.ch016

The university-enterprise (U-E) relationship is a topic that has gathered much interest in the academic world. Universities seek to offer services and technology that help firms to build and foster a harmonious U-E relationship, allowing firms to continually renew their involvement in the relationship. This chapter seeks to analyze the role played by various factors—satisfaction, commitment as perceived by firms, perceived commitment by universities, trust, and reputation—in encouraging firms to continuously renew their involvement in the university relationship. A questionnaire was produced drawing on a literature review looking at U-E relationships, the results of which were then analyzed using partial least squares – structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). Afyer analyzing 80 responses from firms involved in U-E relationships, it was possible to conclude that commitment of firms, reputation, and the perceived commitment of the universities are very important in the continuous participation of firms in U-E relationships.
Published: 13 November 2017
Journal of Islamic Marketing, Volume 8, pp 686-710; doi:10.1108/jima-10-2015-0081

Managing trust recovery in case of violation of halal products should be seen in light of the severity of violation as perceived by the consumer. This study aims to investigate how the severity of violation on halal directly impact negative consumer behavior (avoidance, boycott and revenge), and its moderating effect on the relationship between trust recovery and avoidance, boycott and revenge. In total, 212 questionnaires were distributed amongst customers who were aware and/or had experienced the violation of a halal product in Klang Valley, Malaysia – each of whom were selected using convenience sampling methods. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and structural equation modelling techniques, were partial least squares (PLS) software was used to measure the direct and indirect relationships between the variables. The results of this investigation showed that trust recovery and negative consumer behavior are negatively related; severity is positively related to avoidance, boycott and revenge; and severity moderates the relationship between trust recovery and avoidance. Empirically, it was found that severity and trust recovery are a significant component that influence negative consumption behavior. This study has significant implications alongside research implications despite some limitations. In a severe violation case, a company needs to ensure that the strategy to fix the problem is genuine and trustworthy, as consumer trust on the recovery action by company is significance to influence customer avoidance in consuming the company’s product. The uniqueness of this study exists in the fact that it is the first known one to concentrate on halal violation and examine the moderating effect of severity of halal violation on the relationship between trust recovery and negative consumer behaviors (avoidance, boycott and revenge).
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 26, pp 1273-1289; doi:10.1080/09669582.2018.1447944

The hotel sector, one of the main pillars of the tourism industry, recognizes its social responsibility and considers it as part of its image. For this reason, firms require new variables and tools to respond to stakeholders’ needs. Trust is an essential variable in meeting these needs. However, managers are unaware that they can achieve much more through trust than through other variables. In this paper, with a sample of 629 guests in four international hotels, we use a model to show that the corporate social responsibility (CSR) association affects not only customers’ loyalty and the image they have of the hotel, but also their trust. Furthermore, this study confirms that the presence of trust as a mediator between CSR and image and loyalty leads to increased loyalty and positive image among guests. Our study shows that hotels should invest in socially responsible initiatives and develop actions to strengthen trust in order to improve their image and increase loyalty. We anticipate that our study will be a starting point for strengthening the literature on this issue, and call on researchers to extend enquiry in this field and provide hotels with guidelines for improvement in the above-mentioned variables using trust as a mediator.
Roudaina Houjeir,
International Journal of Bank Marketing, Volume 35, pp 495-515; doi:10.1108/ijbm-05-2016-0075

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the significance of culture generally, and Arab culture in particular, for the development of trust in business-to-business (B2B) banking relationships. Design/methodology/approach Qualitative fieldwork was employed, gathering in-depth interview data from bankers and their business clients in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In total, 80 relationships between bankers and business clients were investigated. Findings The development of trusting relationships between bankers and clients is affected by the cultural origins of the relationship partners. Strongly held religious beliefs, and loyalty to family, tribe and nation, lead to strong affect-based trust between bankers and clients from Arab culture. Cognitive-based trust is more characteristic of UAE banker/client relationships that involve partners from outside the Arab world. Research limitations/implications The study was conducted in the UAE. Additional tests in other Arab countries would be valuable. The qualitative nature of the study means that statistical generalizations cannot be drawn. Practical implications The cultural origins of banking relationship managers are of considerable importance when seeking to develop relationships of trust with business banking clients in the Arab world. Originality/value This substantial, qualitative study of banker relationships with business clients throws considerable light on the importance of culture as an antecedent to trust in B2B banking relationships.
Published: 9 January 2017
European Business Review, Volume 29, pp 43-60; doi:10.1108/ebr-08-2016-0113

Purpose The aim of this study is to determine whether customer satisfaction, trust and commitment as relationship quality factors can be valuable to a luxury motor vehicle dealership in generating favourable behavioural intentions concerning post-purchase service and repair offerings. Design/methodology/approach A descriptive research design was followed, and self-administered questionnaires were fielded among customers of the luxury motor vehicle dealership. A total of 301 questionnaires were returned and the interrelationships between the constructs were examined using structural equation modelling. Findings It was discovered that customers who trust the dealership may be more committed, and commitment may strengthen the relationship between customer satisfaction and a favourable behavioural intention towards the dealership. Research limitations/implications The findings of the study add to the developing body of empirical literature on relationship quality and behavioural intention. Practical implications The study indicates how relationship quality factors can influence behavioural intentions of customers, assist in building long-term relationships with customers and retain current customers where post-purchase service and repairs of luxury goods are concerned. Originality/value The study provides an emerging market perspective of the interrelationships between relationship quality factors affecting behavioural intention regarding service and repairs of luxury goods.
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