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(searched for: doi:10.1002/jmv.1890070402)
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Published: 9 September 2020
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092740

Abstract:
Despite the advancements in vaccination research and practices, influenza viruses remain a global health concern. Inducing a robust immune response by vaccination is especially challenging in the elderly, the immunocompromised, and persons with chronic illnesses. Polysaccharides derived from food may act as a safe and readily accessible means to boost the immune system during vaccination. In this study, we investigated whether crude polysaccharides derived from carrot pomace (CPP) could stimulate innate immune cell function and promote influenza vaccine immunogenicity. In bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), CPP increased the fraction of CD11c+MHCII+ cells and the expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD40 and CD80, indicative of enhanced maturation and activation. Functionally, CPP-treated BMDCs promoted inflammatory cytokine production in splenic lymphocytes. In a mouse model of immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide, animals given CPP before and after an influenza vaccine challenge showed increased frequencies of dendritic cells and natural killer cells in the spleen, in addition to the recovery of vaccine-specific antibody titers. Moreover, innate myeloid cells in CPP-fed mice showed evidence of phenotypic modification via markedly enhanced interleukin(IL)-12 and interferon(IFN)-γ production in response to lipopolysaccharide(LPS) stimulation ex vivo. Our findings suggest that the administration of carrot pomace polysaccharides can significantly enhance the efficacy of influenza vaccination.
, Shinji Maeda, Hiroo Sawada, Yuko Watanabe, Tomoyo Osawa, Yoshihito Hayami, Shogo Banno, Akimichi Morita, Ryuzo Ueda
Allergology International, Volume 56, pp 303-308; https://doi.org/10.2332/allergolint.c-06-49

Abstract:
Background: Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) is characterized by a severe multiorgan hypersensitivity reaction that usually appears after prolonged exposure to certain drugs and may be related to reactivation of herpes viruses. There have been few reports regarding the clinical association of DIHS with pathogens other than herpes viruses. Case Summary: We report a case of scleroderma with DIHS associated with paramyxovirus infection. A 61-year-old man with early diffuse cutaneous scleroderma with myositis and progressive interstitial pneumonia developed generalized erythema with high fever 3 weeks after taking sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. The diagnosis of DIHS was made based on the patient's history of using an offending drug, clinical manifestations and laboratory data showing peripheral eosinophilia with the presence of atypical lymphocytes. Virological tests showed significant increases of antibody titers against mumps virus and parainfluenza virus type 2, which strongly suggested that paramyxovirus infection occurred during the clinical course of DIHS. Discussion: These findings suggest that paramyxovirus infection had contributed to the development of DIHS in this patient and that there is a need to seek evidence of other viral infections in some cases of DIHS, especially those without herpes virus reactivation/infection
C.H Park, K Matsuda, Y Sunden, A Ninomiya, A Takada, H Ito, T Kimura, K Ochiai, H Kida,
Published: 21 November 2003
Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 97, pp 259-268; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2003.10.001

Abstract:
One-hundred thirty-seven BALB/c mice were intranasally inoculated with neurotropic avian influenza A virus (H5N3). Thirty-nine of these mice died within 16 days post-inoculation (PID) and 98 of the mice recovered from the infection. To investigate whether viral antigens and genomes persist in the central nervous system (CNS) of recovered mice, immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods were performed. Histopathologically, mild interstitial pneumonia and non-suppurative encephalomyelitis restricted to the basal part of the frontal lobe of the cerebrum, brain stem and thoracic spinal cord were observed in BALB/c mice until 40 PID. Small amounts of viral antigens were detected in the brain and spinal cord and some viral RNA segments (NA, NP, M, PA, HA, NS, PB1) were intermittently detected in the CNS until 48 PID. Immunosuppression of these mice by dexamethazone (DEX) treatment did not increase the frequency of detection of the lesions, viral antigens or genomes. These findings suggest that viral genomes of neurovirulent influenza virus persist with restricted transcriptive activity in the CNS of the mice even after clinical recovery from the infection.
B. Lundh
Published: 1 January 1990
Acta Neuropathologica, Volume 79, pp 395-401; https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00308715

Abstract:
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) was injected into the left eyeball of 3-week-old mice and it infected the retinal ganglion cells. The infection spread rapidly along the visual pathways to the postsynaptic neurons in the contralateral superior collicle (SC) and lateral geniculate body (LGB). The distributional pattern of the viral immunoreactivity indicated an anterograde axonal transport of the infectious material. A subsequent spread to the ganglion cells of the right retina further indicated retrograde axonal VSV transport. Within the retina the infection spread from the ganglion cells to the pigment epithelium. Although a transneuronal spread of the VSV infection was observed, no VSV budding from or uptake in synaptic membranes was demonstrated ultrastructurally in the retina or the superior collicle. In the retina virions budded from the perikaryal and dendritic plasma membranes of the ganglion cells as well as from the nerve cell bodies of the inner and outer nuclear layers, but not from the receptor segments. In the superior collicle budding was also observed from the plasma membranes of nerve cell bodies and dendrites. In contrast, the intraocular injection of Sendai virus caused a limited retinal ganglion cell infection, with no further propagation in the retina or to the SC or LGB.
Norbert J. Roberts, Frank Domurat
Published: 1 January 1989
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Calvin L. Astry, Robert H. Yolken, George J. Jakab
Published: 1 January 1984
Journal of Medical Virology, Volume 14, pp 81-90; https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.1890140202

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