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(searched for: doi:10.2307/1236993)
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, Stephen Biggs, Scott E. Justice
Published: 8 December 2021
Development Policy Review, Volume 40; https://doi.org/10.1111/dpr.12612

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Stephen Biggs, Aviram Sharma, Scott Justice, Rajendra Uprety
Published: 31 August 2017
SSRN Electronic Journal; https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3194417

Abstract:
This paper sets out to reflect on research in the early 1970s to develop a policy model in the Leontief macroeconomic tradition for the Kosi command area, and investigate the relevance of such models to today’s policy debates for the overall Kosi River basin. The earlier research was set in the context of the ‘generation of problems’ arising from the Indian Green Revolution. Many of the debates at the time concerned policies for the promotion of capital goods in rural areas, such as different types of irrigation technologies, tractors, harvesters, threshers and processing technology, and policies to encourage rural industries to support alternative patterns of rural mechanization. The authors describe the academic and fieldwork contexts of the earlier research; then, in order to ground this paper in a contemporary context, the authors briefly describe the spread of some capital goods in recent years on both the Nepal and Bihar sides of the Kosi river Basin. The authors then review contemporary literature to see what academic research is being done now on the Kosi River basin and find a large hydrology and socio-economic literature. However, as far as the authors can tell, this research is not focusing on macro Leontief economic modelling for policy purposes or on studies to understand the spread of rural capital goods and the growth of small and medium rural industries. The authors conclude by suggesting that Leontief economics needs reviving together with cost-effective field studies of the spread of rural capital goods and the growth of associated rural industries.
Akhand Akhtar Hossain
Published: 12 March 2009
Journal of Contemporary Asia, Volume 39, pp 204-230; https://doi.org/10.1080/00472330902723790

Abstract:
Agricultural prices in Bangladesh have had a tendency to rise at a faster rate than industrial prices since the early 1950s. The resulting rising trend in the agricultural terms of trade has been pronounced since the mid-1980s when Bangladesh introduced IMF- and World Bank-supported deregulatory economic reforms. This rising trend in the agricultural terms of trade is inconsistent with the Prebisch-Singer thesis in the context of domestic economy, which suggests a secular deterioration in the terms of trade for primary products vis-à-vis manufactured products. It is, however, consistent with the view of classical economists who saw the possibility of an upward trend in the terms of trade for agricultural products (food) because of diminishing returns in agriculture. In fact, the classical idea of the rising terms of trade for primary products makes sense in a land-constrained growing economy with increasing population, such as Bangladesh, which remained semi-closed until the mid-1980s. This article reviews macroeconomic policies in Bangladesh since the 1950s, examines the time-series properties of agricultural prices, industrial prices and the agricultural terms of trade and draws inference on the issue whether the agricultural sector was squeezed systematically by turning the terms of trade against agriculture for industrialisation of the country.
Stephen Biggs
Published: 1 August 2008
Development in practice, Volume 18, pp 489-505; https://doi.org/10.1080/09614520802181228

Abstract:
This article traces a history of agricultural participatory research, largely from the author's personal experience. Participatory research in the 1970s was mostly led by disciplinary scientists, and characterised by innovative activities and open academic debate, with some recognition that policy and development practice was a political process. The 1980s saw a shift to learning from past experience, and a participatory mainstream developed, seeking methods for scaling up. Meanwhile, others sought to understand and influence policy and institutional change in their political and cultural contexts, and to keep open the academic debates. The author considers the 1990s as ‘lost years’, during which mainstream participatory practitioners became inward-looking development generalists, not so interested in learning from others outside their paradigm. The late 2000s provide a chance to re-recognise the political and cultural embeddedness of science and technology; re-introduce strong, widely based disciplines; and learn from past activities that resulted in positive development outcomes (planned or unplanned).
Khalid Aftab, Eric Rahim
Published: 1 October 1986
The Journal of Development Studies, Volume 23, pp 60-76; https://doi.org/10.1080/00220388608422019

Abstract:
This article explains the emergence of a substantial‐sized small‐scale sector in an industry in which a number of large enterprises were already well established. The barrier normally set up by the requirements associated with large‐scale production was overcome by small enterprises practising vertical specialisation. The survival of the small‐scale sector was ensured by these units occupying the low‐quality, low‐price segment of the market and the large firms having access to more protected and lucrative markets.
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