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(searched for: doi:10.1177/0146167299025002004)
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Ji Youn Jeong, John L. Crompton,
International Journal of Tourism Research, Volume 21, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.2236

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, Volume 15, pp 385-407; https://doi.org/10.1108/qram-08-2017-0083

Abstract:
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the corpus of gender research in accounting journals, with the overall aim of evaluating the extent to which it has contributed to the understanding of the organization of accounting and its social and organizational functions. Design/methodology/approach Gender articles have been critically analyzed. The selection included all gender papers published between the years 2000 and 2014, in 58 journals ranked A*, A and B from the Australian Business Deans Council (ABDC) journal ranking list. Patterns within the publishing norms of those journals were identified and critically reflected upon. Findings Gender research has been grouped into three categories, namely, gender as a dummy (or control) variable, gender as giving voice and gender as a process and organizing principle. Of these three categories, it can be contended that using gender as a dummy variable is very common, and it proved to be the least fruitful in explicating the roles of gender in accounting. Moreover, many published papers confuse sex with gender. Research limitations/implications This paper discusses future avenues and approaches for research gender in accounting without, however, expanding on recent changes in gender research. Originality/value This paper is the first to systematically review gender research in the accounting field over the past three decades. Its key insight is to identify two persistent pitfalls within the current gender research practice, namely, the use of gender as a control variable only and the confusion of sex with gender. These pitfalls diminish the value of gender research overall and render it less relevant to the broader accounting literature. By using the term gender either as an add-on or, mistakenly, as a biological rather than cultural marker, the totality of those articles helps marginalize gender as an accounting research area because they fail to bring about the reconceptualization of accounting as a discipline. This stands in marked contrast to the achievements of gender approaches in other disciplines, such as sociology, history or work and employment. Articles that frequently decry the status of gender in accounting research turn out to be also reinforcing the marginalization of gender in accounting.
Hannah J. Foy, Patrick Runham,
Published: 26 May 2016
Abstract:
Road traffic accidents consistently show a significant over-representation for young, novice and particularly male drivers. This research examines the prefrontal cortex activation of young drivers and the changes in activation associated with manipulations of mental workload and inhibitory control. It also considers the explanation that a lack of prefrontal cortex maturation is a contributing factor to the higher accident risk in this young driver population. The prefrontal cortex is associated with a number of factors including mental workload and inhibitory control, both of which are also related to road traffic accidents. This experiment used functional near infrared spectroscopy to measure prefrontal cortex activity during five simulated driving tasks: one following task and four overtaking tasks at varying traffic densities which aimed to dissociate workload and inhibitory control. Age, experience and gender were controlled for throughout the experiment. The results showed that younger drivers had reduced prefrontal cortex activity compared to older drivers. When both mental workload and inhibitory control increased prefrontal cortex activity also increased, however when inhibitory control alone increased there were no changes in activity. Along with an increase in activity during overtaking manoeuvres, these results suggest that prefrontal cortex activation is more indicative of workload in the current task. There were no differences in the number of overtakes completed by younger and older drivers but males overtook significantly more than females. We conclude that prefrontal cortex activity is associated with the mental workload required for overtaking. We additionally suggest that the reduced activation in younger drivers may be related to a lack of prefrontal maturation which could contribute to the increased crash risk seen in this population.
Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, Volume 19, pp 41-55; https://doi.org/10.1108/jfmm-10-2013-0115

Abstract:
Purpose: – entailed assessing directions in subject matter content and the types of research strategy employed. In research using human participants, the purposes were to assess: sampling strategy, statements limiting generalizability, incentive use, and the use of undergraduates (UGs) as participants. Finally, with studies utilizing UG participants, the purpose of this paper was to assess: directions in subject matter content, research strategy, sampling strategy, justification of participants, statements limiting generalizability, and incentive use. Design/methodology/approach: – A content analysis of fashion/clothing research articles (n=963) appearing in three scholarly journals between 1996 and 2013. Findings: – Consumer behavior was the most frequent research topic and survey methodology dominated the research strategy employed. Majority of samples were nonprobability, slightly over half of the authors provided statements limiting generalizability of their findings, use of incentives was routinely not reported, and a little over a third used UGs as participants. Of researchers using UGs, consumer behavior was the most frequent topic, UGs were justified as participants, and when both UGs and nonstudents were included as participants, comparisons in responses were typically not made. Research limitations/implications: – Articles included were limited to those published in three journals. Practical implications: – Author/reviewer guidelines should suggest providing: an appropriate rationale for UG use; descriptive population statistics; statements limiting generalization; information describing the sampling technique; and information on the use of incentives. Also when authors have UGs and nonstudent adults as participants it would be useful to analyze for significant differences between the two groups. Originality/value: – First investigation of use of UGs as participants in clothing/fashion research.
, Maren Dollwet, Meghana A. Rao
The Journal of Positive Psychology, Volume 10, pp 185-195; https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2014.943801

Abstract:
Since the original call by Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi (2000) for a new science of happiness, excellence, and optimal human functioning, there has been an explosion of activity in, acclaim for, and criticism of positive psychology. The purpose of this study was to identify and examine the peer-reviewed literature linked to the positive psychology movement. An extensive systematic review identified 1336 articles published between 1999 and 2013. More than 750 of these articles included empirical tests of positive psychology theories, principles, and interventions. The results show a fairly consistent increase in the rate of publication, and that the number of empirical studies has grown steadily over the time period. The findings demonstrate that positive psychology is a growing and vibrant sub-area within the broader discipline of psychology, committed to using the same rigorous scientific methods as other sub-areas, in pursuit of understanding well-being, excellence, and optimal human functioning.
, , Klaus Fiedler
Personality and Social Psychology Review, Volume 18, pp 107-118; https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868313496330

Abstract:
Recent studies have indicated that research practices in psychology may be susceptible to factors that increase false-positive rates, raising concerns about the possible prevalence of false-positive findings. The present article discusses several practices that may run counter to the inflation of false-positive rates. Taking these practices into account would lead to a more balanced view on the false-positive issue. Specifically, we argue that an inflation of false-positive rates would diminish, sometimes to a substantial degree, when researchers (a) have explicit a priori theoretical hypotheses, (b) include multiple replication studies in a single paper, and (c) collect additional data based on observed results. We report findings from simulation studies and statistical evidence that support these arguments. Being aware of these preventive factors allows researchers not to overestimate the pervasiveness of false-positives in psychology and to gauge the susceptibility of a paper to possible false-positives in practical and fair ways.
Perspectives on Psychological Science, Volume 7, pp 562-571; https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691612457576

Abstract:
The current crisis in psychological research involves issues of fraud, replication, publication bias, and false positive results. I argue that this crisis follows the failure of widely adopted solutions to psychology’s similar crisis of the 1970s. The untouched root cause is an information-economic one: Too many studies divided by too few publication outlets equals a bottleneck. Articles cannot pass through just by showing theoretical meaning and methodological rigor; their results must appear to support the hypothesis perfectly. Consequently, psychologists must master the art of presenting perfect-looking results just to survive in the profession. This favors aesthetic criteria of presentation in a way that harms science’s search for truth. Shallow standards of statistical perfection distort analyses and undermine the accuracy of cumulative data; narrative expectations encourage dishonesty about the relationship between results and hypotheses; criteria of novelty suppress replication attempts. Concerns about truth in research are emerging in other sciences and may eventually descend on our heads in the form of difficult and insensitive regulations. I suggest a more palatable solution: to open the bottleneck, putting structures in place to reward broader forms of information sharing beyond the exquisite art of present-day journal publication.
Kris Hardies, Diane Breesch, Joël Branson
Published: 1 January 2011
SSRN Electronic Journal; https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1433361

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, Sandy Schumann
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 46, pp 684-688; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2010.02.007

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Kris Hardies, Diane Breesch, Joël Branson
Published: 14 January 2010
SSRN Electronic Journal; https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1409964

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Multivariate Behavioral Research, Volume 44, pp 711-740; https://doi.org/10.1080/00273170903333574

Abstract:
A model-based framework, due originally to R. A. Fisher, and a design-based framework, due originally to J. Neyman, offer alternative mechanisms for inference from samples to populations. We show how these frameworks can utilize different types of samples (nonrandom or random vs. only random) and allow different kinds of inference (descriptive vs. analytic) to different kinds of populations (finite vs. infinite). We describe the extent of each framework's implementation in observational psychology research. After clarifying some important limitations of each framework, we describe how these limitations are overcome by a newer hybrid model/design-based inferential framework. This hybrid framework allows both kinds of inference to both kinds of populations, given a random sample. We illustrate implementation of the hybrid framework using the High School and Beyond data set.
, M. Brent Donnellan, Robert A. Ackerman,
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Volume 35, pp 1131-1142; https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167208331253

Abstract:
This article is designed to provide psychologists who publish articles in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin (PSPB ) with a set of basic issues to consider when reporting their analyses and results. We first assessed the current reporting practices of social and personality psychologists by conducting an analysis of PSPB articles published in the first half of 2007. We evaluated the completeness of these reports with respect to the level of detail in both the Method and Results sections. We then used this information to develop recommendations that we hope will enhance the reporting of quantitative research in social and personality psychology. These suggestions emphasize ways to increase transparency in research reports. Transparency facilitates replication and a critical evaluation of research, thereby promoting scientific progress.
P. J. Henry
Published: 22 May 2008
Psychological Inquiry, Volume 19, pp 49-71; https://doi.org/10.1080/10478400802049936

Abstract:
Twenty years have passed since Sears (1986) Sears, D. O. 1986. College sophomores in the laboratory: Influences of a narrow data base on social psychology's view of human nature. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology., 51: 515–530. [Crossref], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar] alerted social psychologists to the many possible dangers faced by relying on a database composed mostly of students, especially with respect to the generalizability of the theoretical conclusions we come to. With a focus this time on the prejudice literature, this article examines how much has changed in our approach to whom we study. Content analyses show that prejudice researchers who publish in social psychology's major journals continue to rely heavily on student samples. Next, data are presented showing that important differences may exist between student and nonstudent participants in terms of how prejudice-related variables are expressed and used. The article concludes by raising metatheoretical concerns about the continued use of student samples both in the conclusions we arrive at as a science and in the very topics we study in the prejudice literature, with various recommendations suggested for decreasing this trend in relying on such a narrow database.
Johanna K. Vollhardt, Rezarta Bilali
Published: 1 January 2008
Social Psychology, Volume 39, pp 12-25; https://doi.org/10.1027/1864-9335.39.1.12

Abstract:
This article examines the overlap between social psychology and the psychological study of peace. We suggest that, within mainstream social psychology, a substantial body of research exists that can be referred to as “social psychological peace research” (SPPR). We present a framework that defines the subject matter and introduces conceptual and methodological criteria, characterizing core research in this area as (1) value-explicit, (2) contextualized, (3) including multiple levels of analysis, and (4) practically oriented. A content analysis of leading social psychology journals identifies the amount and nature of current SPPR. We suggest future directions for an integrated body of research to realize the field's potential to further the understanding and prevention of societal conflict as well as the promotion of positive intergroup relations.
Published: 1 January 2007
Evolutionary Psychology, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.1177/147470490700500108

Abstract:
Has the emergence of evolutionary psychology had an increasing impact on personality and social psychological research published over the past two decades? If so, is its growing influence substantially different from that of other emerging psychological areas? These questions were addressed in the present study by conducting a content analysis of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP) from 1985 to 2004 using the PsycINFO online abstract database. Specifically, keyword searches for “evol*” or “Darwin*” revealed that the percentage of JPSP articles drawing on evolutionary theory was modest, but increased significantly between 1985 and 2004. To compare the growing impact of evolutionary psychology with other psychological areas, similar keywords searches were performed in JPSP for emotion and motivation, judgment and decision making, neuroscience and psychophysiology, stereotyping and prejudice, and terror management theory. The increase in evolutionary theory in JPSP over time was practically equal to the mean increase over time for the other five areas. Thus, evolutionary psychology has played an increasing role in shaping personality and social psychological research over the past 20 years, and is growing at a rate consistent with other emerging psychological areas.
Monika J.A. Schroder,
Published: 1 April 2005
British Food Journal, Volume 107, pp 212-224; https://doi.org/10.1108/00070700510589503

Abstract:
Purpose – Aims to investigate the effect of communicating corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives to young consumers in the UK on their fast-food purchasing with reference to McDonald's and Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC). Design/methodology/approach – Focus groups were conducted to clarify themes and inform a questionnaire on fast-food purchasing behaviours and motives. Attitude statements were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis. Findings – Most respondents (82 per cent) regularly purchased fast food from one of the companies; purchases were mostly impulsive (57 per cent) or routine (26 per cent), suggesting relatively low-level involvement in each case. While there was scepticism regarding the CSR activity being promoted, expectations about socially responsible behaviour by the companies were nevertheless high. Four factors were isolated, together explaining 52 per cent of the variance in fast-food purchasing behaviour. They were brand value, nutritional value, ethical value and food quality. Research limitations/implications – The research was conducted with students, and while these represent a key-target market, any further research should target a more diverse public. Practical implications – There are important implications for global fast-food companies in terms of protecting and developing their brand value; they need to respond to the wider food-related debates in society, in particular, those concerning healthy eating and food ethics. They also need to ensure that their business practices are fully consistent with the values expressed in their CSR initiatives. Originality/value – The special value of the paper lies in its joining together of current perspectives on CSR and consumer value in the UK food industry as it explores both through the perceptions of young consumers of fast food.
, Conor Seyle
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Volume 31, pp 155-165; https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167204271591

Abstract:
Psychology’s early allegiance to behaviorism and experimental methods led many to disparage personality approaches throughout much of last century. Doubts about personality psychology’s viability culminated in Mischel’s assertion that measures of personality account for modest amounts of variance in behavior. In the years immediately following this critique, interest in personality research waned and many psychology departments dropped their training programs in personality. Throughout the past two decades, however, personality psychology has enjoyed a resurgence. The authors discuss several possible explanations for personality’s comeback and then describe the emergence of a promising symbiosis between personality psychology and its sister discipline, social psychology. The article concludes by noting that although this emerging symbiosis is likely to continue bearing considerable theoretical fruit, the traditional distinction between personal, situational, and interactional determinants of behavior continues to be useful within appropriate contexts.
, Emily M. Dobbins, Pam Marek, Jason R. Jones
Published: 1 January 2004
Teaching of Psychology, Volume 31, pp 31-36; https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328023top3101_8

Abstract:
We analyzed the first 10 editions of Baron and Byrne's social psychology textbook. Modeling our methodology on Griggs and Jackson's (1996) longitudinal analysis of Hilgard's (1953) introductory psychology text, we ascertained changes in objective features, content, and contributors and contributions to social psychology. Changes in objective features partially mirrored changes in introductory texts. Topical coverage of areas related to social cognition increased. A small core of classic publications emerged. We discuss findings in relation to other analyses of textbooks, journal content, and researcher eminence.
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Volume 26, pp 1421-1432; https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167200263009

Abstract:
This article reports two studies designed to test the hypotheses that lower levels of attitudinal ambivalence are associated with attitudes that are more predictive of behavior, more stable over time, and less pliable. Study 1 (n = 346) employed a prospective design to test the effects of ambivalence on attitude-intention-behavior relationships. Findings indicated that less ambivalent attitudes were more predictive of subsequent behavioral intentions and behavior but were unrelated to attitude stability. Study 2 (n = 344) used a simple pre-post experimental design and showed that ambivalent attitudes were more pliable in the face of a persuasive communication. The findings are discussed in relation to future research into the bidimensional conceptualization of attitudes.
James Friedrich, Evelyn Buday, David Kerr
Published: 1 October 2000
Teaching of Psychology, Volume 27, pp 248-257; https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328023top2704_02

Abstract:
We surveyed a national sample of U.S. undergraduate psychology programs regarding the structure and content of statistical training. Results revealed considerable diversity in approaches and offerings. Contemporary trends in data analysis (e.g., power and effect size analysis, confidence interval estimation, general linear model approaches) as well as measurement issues appear to receive relatively little attention in the core sequence. Respondents tended to view such topics as appropriate for more advanced courses, which they said were infrequently required. We discuss options for addressing issues of course sequencing, content focus, and advanced-level offerings in the major.
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