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(searched for: doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5710.621)
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Roberta Malmgren, John Bamford, Charles Warlow, Peter Sandercock
Published: 21 November 1987
Journal: The Lancet
The Lancet, Volume 330, pp 1196-1200; https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(87)91331-6

Sinclair Lough, Alan M. Wing, Carole Fraser, John R. Jenner
Published: 30 September 1984
Human movement science, Volume 3, pp 247-256; https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-9457(84)90019-8

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 10 September 1983
by BMJ
BMJ (Clinical research ed.), Volume 287, pp 713-717; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.287.6394.713

Abstract:
The Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project is a prospective study of all new cases of stroke and transient ischaemic attack in a defined population of about 103 000 patients registered with 49 general practitioners; every case is assessed by a neurologist and most patients undergo a CT scan or are examined post mortem, or both, to ensure accurate diagnosis. Out of 404 cases registered in the first year, 168 patients had suffered a first stroke, 52 a recurrent stroke, and 41 a transient ischaemic attack; 143 were excluded. Of the 168 patients with their first stroke, 153 (91%) were seen by a neurologist and 149 (89%) had a CT scan or came to necropsy. The pathological diagnosis was cerebral infarction in 127 cases (76%), intracranial haemorrhage in 22 (13%), and unknown in 19 (11%). The estimated yearly incidence of first stroke was 1.95/1000 population (age adjusted to 1981 population of England and Wales).
R J Croft, M J Harrison, A Marston, , R Thakkar
Published: 1 May 1981
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Volume 74, pp 330-2

Rodney J Croft, Michael J G Harrison, Adrian Marston, Christopher Chappie, Rajesh Thakkar
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Volume 74, pp 330-332; https://doi.org/10.1177/014107688107400502

S Haberman, R Capildeo, F C Rose
Published: 1 March 1981
by BMJ
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Volume 35, pp 45-50; https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.35.1.45

Abstract:
Incidence rates for cerebrovascular disease reported by community-based and hospital-based studies during the past 15 years are analysed. The range of variation between area is wide, with Japan and Finland experiencing the highest age-adjusted rates. Of 16 studies reporting incidence rates by sex, 15 showed a male excess, and nine of these were significant when the incidence rate was age-adjusted. Overall, the excess is about 30% for both community-bases and hospital-based studies. For cerebral infarction the excess is about 45%. Intracerebral haemorrhage shows little difference between the two sexes and subarachnoid haemorrhage shows a male deficit of about 50%. These findings are self-consistent.
A Mackay, B C Nias
Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London, Volume 13, pp 106-12

Andreas Terent
Published: 18 January 1979
Upsala journal of medical sciences, Volume 84, pp 235-246; https://doi.org/10.3109/03009737909179160

Abstract:
A prospective epidemiological study of cerebrovascular diseases and transient ischemic attacks (TIA) is presented. During a three-year period the annual incidence of strokes was 2.90 and of TIA 0.45 per thousand population. This difference in incidence and the disparities in age characteristics favour the hypothesis that TIA precedes only a minority of the strokes. The short-term mortality is high among the stroke patients.
S. Haberman
Published: 31 December 1978
Social Science & Medicine (1982), Volume 12, pp 153-157; https://doi.org/10.1016/0271-7123(78)90044-5

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
R F Gillum, R R Fabsitz, M Feinleib, P A Wolf, J R Margolis, R C Brasch
Published: 1 September 1978
Public Health Reports, Volume 93, pp 438-42

Richard F. Gillum
Published: 28 February 1978
Journal of chronic diseases, Volume 31, pp 87-94; https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9681(78)90093-0

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
G A Broe, A J Akhtar, G R Andrews, F I Caird, A J Gilmore, W J McLennan
Published: 1 April 1976
by BMJ
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, Volume 39, pp 362-366; https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.39.4.362

Abstract:
Eight hundred and eight subjects participated in three surveys of random samples of people aged 65 years or more living in their own homes. Neurological history and examination showed the prevalence of completed stroke to be 73 per 1000. Eighty-seven subjects per 1000 gave a history of transient cerebral ischaemic attacks. These prevalence rates were unaffected by age or sex. Senile dementia was diagnosed in 24 subjects per 1000 under 75 years and 109 per 1000 over that age. The prevalence of dementia of all types was 43 per 1000 under, and 140 per 1000, over 75 years of age. Parkinsonism was diagnosed in 16 subjects per 1000, and essential tremor in 17 per 1000. The prevalence of epilepsy was four subject per 1000. Other neurological disorders were diagnosed in 36 subjects, and a similar number had neurological abnormalities to which a definite diagnosis could not be given.
Roy M. Acheson, Anthony S. Fairbairn
Published: 1 January 1971
Journal: Stroke
Stroke, Volume 2, pp 48-57; https://doi.org/10.1161/01.str.2.1.48

Abstract:
Data collected by record linkage are used as a basis for an analysis of the burden of cerebrovascular diseases in a population of 340,000 in central England. Comparison with studies which use other methods in the United States and England indicate that for all Cerebrovascular diseases together, and for subarachnoid hemorrhage, the assumptions underlying the analysis may have reflected the overall incidence of and survival from serious disease in Oxford reasonably accurately, but this may not be true for two individual rubrics, cerebral hemorrhage and infarction. Criticisms made of this conclusion in the recent literature are discussed. The system in its present state does not permit the study of transient ischemic attacks. Data shown here and elsewhere indicate that subarachnoid hemorrhage is the most reliable of the stroke diagnoses, and the Oxford data show reasonable consistency with others gathered elsewhere using other methods. It would appear that there are considerable age-specific and sex-specific differences for subarachnoid hemorrhage in terms of incidence and survival. Attention is drawn to the extent to which cerebrovascular disease occurs in people under age 65 years.
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