(searched for: doi:10.1042/bss0740047)
Frontiers in Immunology, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.702381
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), and especially exosomes, have been shown to mediate information exchange between distant cells; this process directly affects the biological characteristics and functionality of the recipient cell. As such, EVs significantly contribute to the shaping of immune responses in both physiology and disease states. While vesicles secreted by immune cells are often implicated in the allergic process, growing evidence indicates that EVs from non-immune cells, produced in the stroma or epithelia of the organs directly affected by inflammation may also play a significant role. In this review, we provide an overview of the mechanisms of allergy to which those EVs contribute, with a particular focus on small EVs (sEVs). Finally, we also give a clinical perspective regarding the utilization of the EV-mediated communication route for the benefit of allergic patients.
Published: 1 January 2014
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a016808
When ubiquitin (Ub) is attached to membrane proteins on the plasma membrane, it directs them through a series of sorting steps that culminate in their delivery to the lumen of the lysosome where they undergo complete proteolysis. Ubiquitin is recognized by a series of complexes that operate at a number of vesicle transport steps. Ubiquitin serves as a sorting signal for internalization at the plasma membrane and is the major signal for incorporation into intraluminal vesicles of multivesicular late endosomes. The sorting machineries that catalyze these steps can bind Ub via a variety of Ub-binding domains. At the same time, many of these complexes are themselves ubiquitinated, thus providing a plethora of potential mechanisms to regulate their activity. Here we provide an overview of how membrane proteins are selected for ubiquitination and deubiquitination within the endocytic pathway and how that ubiquitin signal is interpreted by endocytic sorting machineries.
Published: 1 December 2010
American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Volume 299; https://doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00372.2009
Surfactant protein A (SP-A) plays an important role in the maintenance of lung lipid homeostasis. Previously, an SP-A receptor, P63 (CKAP4), on type II pneumocyte plasma membranes (PM) was identified by chemical cross-linking techniques. An antibody to P63 blocked the specific binding of SP-A to pneumocytes and the ability of SP-A to regulate surfactant secretion. The current report shows that another biological activity of SP-A, the stimulation of surfactant uptake by pneumocytes, is inhibited by P63 antibody. cAMP exposure resulted in enrichment of P63 on the cell surface as shown by stimulation of SP-A binding, enhanced association of labeled P63 antibody with type II cells, and promotion of SP-A-mediated liposome uptake, all of which were inhibited by competing P63 antibody. Incubation of A549 and type II cells with SP-A also increased P63 localization on the PM. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) signaling pathway was explored as a mechanism for the transport of this endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein to the PM. Treatment with LY-294002, an inhibitor of the PI3-kinase pathway, prevented the SP-A-induced PM enrichment of P63. Exposure of pneumocytes to SP-A or cAMP activated Akt (PKB). Blocking either PI3-kinase or Akt altered SP-A-mediated lipid turnover. The data demonstrate an important role for the PI3-kinase-Akt pathway in intracellular transport of P63. The results add to the growing body of evidence that P63 is critical for SP-A receptor-mediated interactions with type II pneumocytes and the resultant regulation of surfactant turnover.
Journal of Biological Chemistry, Volume 284, pp 26331-26339; https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m109.033514
Rin1 is a Rab5 guanine nucleotide exchange factor that plays an important role in Ras-activated endocytosis and growth factor receptor trafficking in fibroblasts. In this study, we show that Rin1 is expressed at high levels in a large number of non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, including Hop62, H650, HCC4006, HCC827, EKVX, HCC2935, and A549. Rin1 depletion from A549 cells resulted in a decrease in cell proliferation that was correlated to a decrease in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Expression of wild type Rin1 but not the Rab5 guanine nucleotide exchange factor-deficient Rin1 (Rin1Delta) complemented the Rin1 depletion effects, and overexpression of Rin1Delta had a dominant negative effect on cell proliferation. Rin1 depletion stabilized the cell surface levels of EGFR, suggesting that internalization was necessary for robust signaling in A549 cells. In support of this conclusion, introduction of either dominant negative Rab5 or dominant negative dynamin decreased A549 proliferation and EGFR signaling. These data demonstrate that proper internalization and endocytic trafficking are critical for EGFR-mediated signaling in A549 cells and suggest that up-regulation of Rin1 in A549 cell lines may contribute to their proliferative nature.
Journal of cell science, Volume 122, pp 2167-2177; https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.028308
Since the initial discovery of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway, research in this field has exploded. ESCRT proteins are part of the endosomal trafficking system and play a crucial role in the biogenesis of multivesicular bodies by functioning in the formation of vesicles that bud away from the cytoplasm. Subsequently, a surprising role for ESCRT proteins was defined in the budding step of some enveloped retroviruses, including HIV-1. ESCRT proteins are also employed in this outward budding process, which results in the resolution of a membranous tether between the host cell and the budding virus particle. Remarkably, it has recently been described that ESCRT proteins also have a role in the topologically equivalent process of cell division. In the same way that viral particles recruit the ESCRT proteins to the site of viral budding, ESCRT proteins are also recruited to the midbody – the site of release of daughter cell from mother cell during cytokinesis. In this Commentary, we describe recent advances in the understanding of ESCRT proteins and how they act to mediate these diverse processes.
Published: 1 March 2009
Journal: Molecular biology of the cell
Molecular biology of the cell, Volume 20, pp 1360-1373; https://doi.org/10.1091/mbc.e08-05-0475
The newly described yeast endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) protein increased sodium tolerance-1 (Ist1p) binds the late-acting ESCRT proteins Did2p/charged MVB protein (CHMP) 1 and Vps4p and exhibits synthetic vacuolar protein sorting defects when combined with mutations in the Vta1p/LIP5–Vps60p/CHMP5 complex. Here, we report that human IST1 also functions in the ESCRT pathway and is required for efficient abscission during HeLa cell cytokinesis. IST1 binding interactions with VPS4, CHMP1, LIP5, and ESCRT-I were characterized, and the IST1–VPS4 interaction was investigated in detail. Mutational and NMR spectroscopic studies revealed that the IST1 terminus contains two distinct MIT interacting motifs (MIM1 and MIM2) that wrap around and bind in different groves of the MIT helical bundle. IST1, CHMP1, and VPS4 were recruited to the midbodies of dividing cells, and depleting either IST1 or CHMP1 proteins blocked VPS4 recruitment and abscission. In contrast, IST1 depletion did not inhibit human immunodeficiency virus-1 budding. Thus, IST1 and CHMP1 act together to recruit and modulate specific VPS4 activities required during the final stages of cell division.
Reproduction, Volume 136, pp 147-156; https://doi.org/10.1530/rep-08-0105
The development of the preimplantation mammalian embryo is an autopoietic process; once initiated development proceeds without an absolute requirement for external information or growth cues. This developmental autonomy is partly explained by the generation of autocrine trophic ligands that are released and act back on the embryo via specific receptors. Several embryotrophic ligands cause receptor-dependent activation of 1-o-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. This enzyme phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate to form phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate. Genetic or pharmacological ablation of this enzyme activity disrupts normal development of preimplantation embryos. Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate is a membrane lipid that acts as a docking site for a wide range of proteins possessing the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Such proteins are important regulators of cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. RAC-α serine/threonine protein kinase is an important PH domain protein and its activity is required for normal preimplantation embryo development and survival. The activity of a range of PH domain proteins is also implicated in the normal development of the embryo. This review critically examines the evidence for the activation of 1-o-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in the generation of pleiotypic trophic response to embryotrophins in the autopoietic development of the preimplantation embryo.
The EMBO Journal, Volume 26, pp 4215-4227; https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.emboj.7601850
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Cell host & microbe, Volume 2, pp 41-53; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2007.06.003
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