(searched for: doi:10.17582/journal.pjz/20210518040546)
Medicina, Volume 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59020343
Background and Objectives: The BaeR protein is involved in the adaptation system of A. baumannii and is associated with virulence factors responsible for systemic infections in hospitalized patients. This study was conducted to characterize putative epitope peptides for the design of vaccines against BaeR protein, using an immune-informatic approach. Materials and Methods: FASTA sequences of BaeR from five different strains of A. baumannii were retrieved from the UNIPROT database and evaluated for their antigenicity, allergenicity and vaccine properties using BepiPred, Vaxijen, AlgPred, AntigenPro and SolPro. Their physio-chemical properties were assessed using the Expasy Protparam server. Immuno-dominant B-cell and T-cell epitope peptides were predicted using the IEDB database and MHC cluster server with a final assessment of their interactions with TLR-2. Results: A final selection of two peptide sequences (36aa and 22aa) was made from the 38 antigenic peptides. E1 was considered a soluble, non-allergenic antigen, and possessed negative GRAVY values, substantiating the hydrophilic nature of the proteins. Further analysis on the T-cell epitopes, class I immunogenicity and HLA allele frequencies yielded T-cell immuno-dominant peptides. The protein–peptide interactions of the TLR-2 receptor showed good similarity scores in terms of the high number of hydrogen bonds compared to other protein-peptide interactions. Conclusions: The two epitopes predicted from BaeR in the present investigation are promising vaccine candidates for targeting the TCS of A. baumannii in systemic and nosocomial infections. This study also demonstrates an alternative strategy to tackling and mitigating MDR strains of A. baumannii and provides a useful reference for the design and construction of novel vaccine candidates against this bacteria.
Molecules, Volume 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28010409
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has arisen as a global concern in recent decades. Plant extracts used in combination with antibiotics are promising against AMR, synergistically. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the component of the bitter ginger (Zingiber zerumbet) extract in different solvents using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), in addition to evaluate the antibacterial activity of these extracts, in combination with their antibiotic potential against four multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus). Ethanol and the aqueous extracts of bitter ginger were prepared using a conventional solvent extraction method and were evaluated for their phytochemistry using HPLC, qualitatively and quantitatively. Moreover, the antibiotic susceptibility of the pathogenic isolates was determined. A disc diffusion assay was used to obtain the antimicrobial potential of the extracts alone and with antibiotics. Eight components were identified from the separation of the bitter ginger extract by HPLC. For AMR bacteria, the combination of the antibiotic solution with the bitter ginger crude extracts could improve its susceptibility of these antibiotics. This study indicates that the combination of an antibiotic solution with the bitter ginger crude extract exhibits potent antibacterial activities against MDR bacterial strains. Therefore, they can be used for the treatment of various diseases against the microbial pathogen and can be incorporated into medication for antibacterial therapy.
Published: 29 December 2022
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed8010026
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major causative agent of mastitis and is resistant to many antibiotics. Thus, there is a need to characterize the genetic determinants of S. aureus erythromycin resistance, such as ermA, ermB and ermC. The current study aimed to determine the phenotypic and genotypic erythromycin resistance profile and relatedness of S. aureus recovered from bovine mastitis and humans in close contact. A total of 14 mastitis-infected buffalo milk samples and 16 samples from their respective milkers were collected from different farms of Lahore, Pakistan. The antibiotic resistance profile was determined through the disk diffusion test. The overall prevalence of S. aureus in mastitis-affected buffaloes was found to be 75%, of which 52.1% were resistant to erythromycin and 42.8% to clindamycin. S. aureus isolates recovered from milker nasal samples showed 56.25% resistance to erythromycin and 44% resistance to clindamycin. Genotypic antibiotic resistance profiles were determined from 14 milk samples through PCR. Overall, eight (52.1%), three (21.4%) and five (35.7%) S. aureus isolates were positive for the ermA, ermB and ermC genes, respectively. Moreover, 16 milker nasal S. aureus isolates were also tested for the presence of ermA, ermB and ermC genes. The ermA, ermB and ermC genes were observed in nine(56.7%), five (31.3%) and seven (43.7%) isolates, respectively. A significant association was shown between phenotypic and genotypic erythromycin resistance. The results indicate both that there are sufficient genetic similarities, and the actual transmission of erythromycin resistance genes between these two hosts of S. aureus.