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(searched for: doi:10.17352/ojps.000043)
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, Kaswan Badami, Amin Zuhri, Gita Pawana, Suhartono Suhartono, Syaiful Khoiri, Ahmad Syaiful Umam, Yudi Asmoro, Siti Rohmatin, Halimatus Sa’Diyah, et al.
Published: 16 September 2022
International Journal of Agronomy, Volume 2022, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/3661952

Abstract:
Melon breeding is directed at improving the quality of the fruit needed to meet consumers demands. The assessment of hybrid melon candidates on important characteristics (vitamin A, vitamin C, and TSS) at five maturity stages is needed to get hybrid melon varieties with good fruit quality and determine the right harvest time. This study aimed to evaluate the genetic parameters of vitamin A, vitamin C, and TSS contents of D-612PK-669 and PK-361PK-165 crossings at five stages of maturity. The study used a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with eight genotypes as treatment and three replications, so there were 24 experimental units. The eight melon genotypes were G1=D-612PK-669, G2=PK-669D-612, G3=D-612, G4=PK-669, G5=PK-361PK-165, G6=PK-165PK-361, G7=PK-361, and G8=PK-165. The content of vitamin A, vitamin C, and TSS was observed at five maturity stages, namely, at 55 DAP, 60 DAP, 65 DAP, 70 DAP, and 75 DAP. The right harvest time for the eight genotypes tested was maturity stage 4 (70 DAP) because it had the highest vitamin A, vitamin C, and TSS contents compared to other maturity stages. The inheritance of vitamin A and C content was not affected by the maternal effect, while TSS was influenced by the maternal effect. The vitamin A, vitamin C, and TSS content characteristics had higher phenotypic diversity coefficients than genetic diversity coefficients, while heritability values in the broad sense for the three melon genotypic characteristics ranged from 0.613 to 0.968. Crosses of PK-165PK-361 can be used to assemble hybrid melon varieties that have high vitamin A, vitamin C, and TSS contents because they have positive values for heterosis and heterobeltiosis for the three characteristics.
Xianwen Zhu, Yunbi Xu, Jian Li, Xingping Zhang
Chinese Science Bulletin (chinese Version) pp 3152-3164; https://doi.org/10.1360/tb-2022-0392

Abstract:
Hybrids utilized in maize and rice production are excellent examples of enhancing crop yield to meet the demand of the increasing world population and climate change. Similarly, hybrid wheat should provide an avenue to increase wheat yield and stress tolerance. Heterosis of wheat is relatively weak due to its allopolyploidy, narrow genetic base between varieties, and long-term varietal selection. The construction of wheat heterotic groups can improve hybrid parental breeding and selection, increase the genetic difference between parents, and enhance the performance of hybrids. To form heterotic groups, it is necessary to understand how heterotic groups are structured. The genetic mechanism of heterosis is not completely understood at present. Research shows that there is no clear relationship between heterosis-related QTL and crops. Also, there is no fixed mode of heterosis in a species. Because multiple genes control heterosis, selection with molecular markers is difficult. Heterosis can be largely attributed to non-additive effects of genes and specific combining ability (SCA) of hybrid combinations. High general combining ability (GCA) of parents plays an important role in maintaining strong heterosis between heterotic groups. Therefore, wheat heterotic group development needs to increase the GCA of parental lines within each heterotic group and select hybrid combinations with high SCA. Some desirable traits for a male heterotic group include tall or medium plant height, heavy pollen production, and strong anther extrusion. Desirable traits for female parents include dwarf or semi-dwarf plant height and large glume opening angle. Disease resistance is important in both male and female groups. Commercial production of hybrid wheat is possible only through the use of male sterility systems. Male sterility in the female parents must be restored by genes in the male parent. Pedigrees, phenotypes, combining ability, genetic distances, and genomic prediction can be used to develop heterotic groups. Genomic prediction can be used to predict heterosis and identify potential heterotic patterns/groups existing in a large number of materials, and, therefore, guide selection of parent lines for development of excellent hybrids. However, the prediction accuracy of statistical models needs to be improved. Utilization of materials from wheat core collection in genomic prediction will facilitate the formation of the training population, and has the potential to improve the prediction accuracy. Recurrent selection in both male and female groups plus reciprocal recurrent selection based on genome prediction can be used to improve wheat heterotic groups. The process of constructing heterotic groups in wheat includes primary population classification, prediction and improvement of heterotic groups, and identification of the best hybrid combination. Development of heterotic groups adaptable to different wheat production regions may utilize both domestic high performing varieties and foreign elite wheat germplasm. Wild relatives with unique traits may also facilitate hybrid wheat breeding and production in China.
Sumanta Prasad Chand, , , Mohd. Shaikhul Ashraf, Pankaj Bhatt,
Published: 24 May 2022
Journal of Food Quality, Volume 2022, pp 1-24; https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/4387318

Abstract:
After soybean and palm oil, the worlds third largest oil seed crop is rapeseed mustard. Out of the seven consumable oil seed crops grown in India, rapeseed mustard is responsible for one-third of production. Mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi Kalt) is considered the primary pest causing mayhem in crop production. Understanding the genetics behind resistance will aid breeders in developing a resistant/tolerant strain. Appropriate parent selection and analyzing gene action contribute to economic benefit maximization. The aims of the current study are to use seven lines and five testers to determine the best-performing parents and crosses based on their general and specific capacity to combine and to examine the level of heterosis for yield and related features like mustard aphid resistance. Due to the self-pollination nature of Indian mustard, Kempthornes line X tester method is helpful to judge the combining ability. Therefore, seven lines and five testers of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) were employed in the present study. The findings suggested that there was substantial genetic variation for all traits examined. The mean oil yield of R1 B2-26×R1 B2-25, JD6×R1 B2-25, and JD6×R1 B2-29 hybrids was more significant than that of the ancestors. The results show that R1 B2-26×R1 B2-25, JD6×R1 B2-25, and JD6×R1 B2-29 hybrids produced more oil than their parents. The variance explained by SCA was greater than that explained by GCA, as indicated by the Ϭ2gca/Ϭ2sca ratio being less than one for all characters, implying that nonadditive gene actions such as dominance, epistasis, and other interaction effects played an important role in the presence of these attributes. Punjab Local was discovered to be an excellent general merge for reducing crop duration, whereas JD6 was an excellent combiner for seed yield per crop, aphid infestation indicator, seed yield per crop, and oil production per plant. The predictability ratio was found to be less than 0.5 for almost all traits, denoting that the nonadditive gene measure is involved in controlling the nature except days to 50 flowering, aphid infestation index, oil content, and oil yield per plant. Thus, based on these four traits, selection for superior plants may be practiced in later generations.
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