(searched for: doi:10.1016/j.jep.2021.114613)
Published: 20 March 2023
Journal: Applied Sciences
Applied Sciences, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13063925
Acetaminophen (APAP) is the most commonly used nonprescription antipyretic-analgesic drug. This medication is thought to be safe at the suggested dosage (4 g/24 h), but its overdose (up to 2.5 g/kg) can cause severe injuries to the human body, including renal injury. APAP has various toxic effects on nephrons, as it leads to an excessive free radical generation that, in turn, results in a disturbance in the redox homeostasis of cells, causing oxidative stress. To replenish this oxidative stress, there is an ultimate urge for natural therapies that can retain the cellular homeostasis of nephrons by diminishing the overdose impression of acetaminophen. The principle objective of this work is to appraise nephrotoxicity due to APAP and its amelioration through the antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of selected medicinal plants: Urtica dioica, Capsella bursa-pastoris, and Inula racemosa (UD, CBP, and IR, respectively). The pH stability of the nutraceuticals used was examined by determining the impact of pH 4, pH 7 and pH 9 on the DPPH radical scavenging activity of aqueous plant extracts. Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) analytical technique was performed to determine the volatile organic phytochemical profiles of all three medicinal plants. Male Swiss albino mice were used for the present investigation. The animals were distributed into five groups of (n = 6), a total of 30 mice, for in vivo analysis. Group 1 served as the control group; group 2 received a single IP dose of APAP (600 mg/kg); group 3 received APAP pretreated with UD (300 mg/kg); group 4 received APAP pretreated with CBP (300 mg/kg); and group 5 received APAP pretreated with IR (300 mg/kg). Overdose of the APAP- induced a significant (p < 0.05) alterations in the total protein concentration, weight and the nephrological architecture in renal tissue, as observed through biochemical assays and histopathological examinations. Due to nephrotoxicity, there was a substantial (p < 0.05) drop in body weight and total protein contents in the APAP alone group when compared to the treatment groups. There was remarkable protection against APAP-induced alterations in the total protein of renal homogenate in the treatment groups. Histopathological analysis (H&E staining) of the mice kidneys indicated severe deterioration in the APAP alone group, whereas the therapy groups showed considerable nephroprotection towards APAP-induced abnormalities. The biochemical findings and histopathological study of the kidneys revealed that the herbal extracts (UD, CBP, and IR) have a nephroprotective potential against APAP-induced nephropathy. The trend of efficacy was observed as UD > CBP > IR. However, extensive study is needed to determine the likely ameliorative mechanism of these nutraceuticals.
Published: 15 March 2023
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Molecules, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27238629
Natural antioxidants derived from plants have played a vital role in preventing a wide range of human chronic conditions and provide novel bioactive leads for investigators in pharmacotherapy discovery. This work was designed to examine the ethnopharmacological role of Urtica dioica (UD), Capsella bursa-pastoris (CBP), and Inula racemosa (IR). The total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC) were illustrated through colorimetric assays, while the antioxidant activity was investigated through DPPH and ABTS assays. The evaluation of phytochemicals by FT-IR of UD and CBP revealed high contents of aliphatic amines, while IR showed a major peak for ketones. The antioxidant activity, TPC and TFC were highest in the ethanol extract of UD, followed by CBP, and IR showed the lowest activity. All of the extracts revealed significant antioxidant capacities along a dosage gradient. Through a HPLC analysis at a wavelength of 280 nm, UD leaves demonstrated an intense peak of quercetin, and the peak for rutin was less intense. CBP (whole plant), instead, demonstrated a major yield of rutin, and a peak for quercetin was not observed in CBP. IR (rhizomes) showed both quercetin and rutin. All of the extracts were significantly cytotoxic to HepG2 cells after 48 h with the trend IR > UD > CBP. The outcomes of this study may be effective in the selection of specific plants as realistic sources of the bioactive components that might be useful in the nutraceutical progression and other biomedical efficacies.