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(searched for: doi:10.1111/mpp.13047)
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Juliet Ochola, Laura Cortada, Onesmus Mwaura, , Shawn A. Christensen, Margaret Ng’Ang’A, Ahmed Hassanali, , Saad Khan, , et al.
Published: 28 February 2022
Nature Sustainability pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-022-00852-5

Abstract:
Renewable eco-friendly options for crop protection are fundamental in achieving sustainable agriculture. Here, we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable lignocellulosic banana-paper matrix as a seed wrap for the protection of potato plants against potato cyst nematode (PCN), Globodera rostochiensis. Potato cyst nematodes are devastating quarantine pests of potato globally. In East Africa, G. rostochiensis has recently emerged as a serious threat to potato production. Wrapping seed potatoes within the lignocellulose banana-paper matrix substantially reduced G. rostochiensis field inoculum and increased potato yields by up to fivefold in Kenya, relative to farmer practice, whether or not impregnated with ultra-low doses of the nematicide abamectin (ABM). Markedly, ABM-treated banana paper at ~1,000 times lower than conventional recommendations reduced PCN inoculum. Assays and analyses revealed that the lignocellulose matrix disrupts parasite–host chemical signalling by adsorbing critical PCN hatching and infective juvenile host location chemicals present in potato root exudate. Recovery experiments confirmed adsorption of these host location chemicals. Our study demonstrates the use of waste organic material to sustainably manage PCN, and potentially other crop root pests, while increasing potato yields.
Published: 25 November 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Potato is one of the most important food crops in the world and also in the Russian Federation. Among harmful organisms reducing potato yield potential, the potato cyst nematodes (PCN) are considered to be ones of the most damaging pests. Information on PCN resistant cultivars is important for potato breeding and production. Russian potato cultivars are characterized in the state-bio-test program for resistance to only one PCN species Globodera rostochiensis and one pathotype Ro1 which is reported to be present in the country. This study aimed to find domestic cultivars with multiple resistances to different PCN species and different pathotypes using phenotyping coupled with molecular marker analysis due to the risk of the occasional introduction of new pests. The phenotypic response was determined by the inoculation of plants with pathotypes Ro5 of G. rostochiensis and Pa3 of G. pallida. The obtained results were supplemented by the state-bio-test data on resistance to Ro1 of G. rostochiensis. Nine of 26 Russian cultivars were resistant both to Ro5 and Ro1 pathotypes and two cultivars possess multiple resistances to both PCN species. Most tested molecular markers associated with the Gpa2, GpaVvrn, GpaVsspl, Grp1 loci showed discrepancies with phenotyping. However, a predictive haplotype and epistatic effect were detected.
Published: 30 October 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Plant parasitic nematodes are a major problem for growers worldwide, causing severe crop losses. Several conventional strategies, such as chemical nematicides and biofumigation, have been employed in the past to manage their infection in plants and spread in soils. However, the search for the most sustainable and environmentally safe practices is still ongoing. This review summarises information on plant parasitic nematodes, their distribution, and their interaction with their host plants, along with various approaches to manage their infestations. It also focuses on the application of microbial and fermentation-based bionematicides that have not only been successful in controlling nematode infection but have also led to plant growth promotion and proven to be environmentally safe. Studies with new information on the relative abundance of plant parasitic nematodes in two agricultural sites in the Republic of Ireland are also reported. This review, with the information it provides, will help to generate an up-to-date knowledge base on plant parasitic nematodes and their management practices.
, J. Olver
Journal of Biological Education pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1080/00219266.2021.1979630

Abstract:
Most undergraduate students do not have practical experience working with model organisms despite having theoretical knowledge of their importance. This practical was developed to offer students experience working with three species of nematode, including Caenorhabditis elegans. In the first task, students prepare slides of three previously fixed nematode samples and are asked to identify their feeding preferences based on information given to them in a short pre-practical presentation. The second and third tasks allow students to deduce the existence of a functional nervous system in Caenorhabditis elegans and then to measure the response of two genotypes, N2 and slo-1, to different concentrations of an ethanol solution. These tasks demonstrate the heterogeneity of different nematodes and enable students to gain experience in widely applicable skills including microscopy, slide preparation, assay design and data presentation. Students also gain experience in specialised skills such as worm picking, which is essential in Caenorhabditis elegans research. This practical can be completed as a standalone and would suit any early year biology course.
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