(searched for: doi:10.1126/sciadv.abh1547)
Vaccine Design pp 209-228; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-1884-4_10
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Microorganisms, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9122414
The explosion of SARS-CoV-2 infections in 2020 prompted a flurry of activity in vaccine development and exploration of various vaccine platforms, some well-established and some new. Phage-based vaccines were described previously, and we explored the possibility of using mycobacteriophages as a platform for displaying antigens of SARS-CoV-2 or other infectious agents. The potential advantages of using mycobacteriophages are that a large and diverse variety of them have been described and genomically characterized, engineering tools are available, and there is the capacity to display up to 700 antigen copies on a single particle approximately 100 nm in size. The phage body may itself be a good adjuvant, and the phages can be propagated easily, cheaply, and to high purity. Furthermore, the recent use of these phages therapeutically, including by intravenous administration, suggests an excellent safety profile, although efficacy can be restricted by neutralizing antibodies. We describe here the potent immunogenicity of mycobacteriophage Bxb1, and Bxb1 recombinants displaying SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein antigens.
Frontiers in Immunology, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.745625
Developing influenza vaccines that protect against a broad range of viruses is a global health priority. Several conserved viral proteins or domains have been identified as promising targets for such vaccine development. However, none of the targets is sufficiently immunogenic to elicit complete protection, and vaccine platforms that can enhance immunogenicity and deliver multiple antigens are desperately needed. Here, we report proof-of-concept studies for the development of next-generation influenza vaccines using the bacteriophage T4 virus-like particle (VLP) platform. Using the extracellular domain of influenza matrix protein 2 (M2e) as a readout, we demonstrate that up to ~1,281 M2e molecules can be assembled on a 120 x 86 nanometer phage capsid to generate M2e-T4 VLPs. These M2e-decorated nanoparticles, without any adjuvant, are highly immunogenic, stimulate robust humoral as well as cellular immune responses, and conferred complete protection against lethal influenza virus challenge. Potentially, additional conserved antigens could be incorporated into the M2e-T4 VLPs and mass-produced in E. coli in a short amount of time to deal with an emerging influenza pandemic.