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(searched for: doi:10.47419/bjbabs.v2i03.67)
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Sharif Heydari, , Nahid Hassanzadeh Nemati, Vahabodin Goodarzi, Ali Vaziri
Published: 4 December 2021
Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 170; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2021.105126

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Nazanin Baneshi, , Adedotun Adetunla, Mohd Yusmiaidil Putera Mohd Yusof, , Amirsalar Khandan, Saeed Saber-Samandari,
Journal of Materials Research and Technology, Volume 15, pp 5526-5539; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2021.10.107

Abstract:
Due to the vital functions of bone tissue in the body, any change in its structure affects the balance of the body. Following a lesion, the body may be unable to repair it, and bone scaffolds may be implanted to stimulate bone cells and thus repair lost bone. This article aims to develop a scaffold with ideal properties that can be used to treat fractures and injuries. The technique used in this study is a hybrid of 3D printing and freeze-drying. Alginate (ALG), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and bioceramic-titanium nanoparticles were used to coat electroconductive polylactic acid (EC-PLA) using the freeze-drying method. The prepared samples were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for morphology functional group and phase characterizations. After coating the scaffolds with the freeze-drying method, the pore size was examined and correlated with the compressive strength values. For biological studies, a bioactivity test involving immersion of the samples in simulated body fluids (SBF) was performed for a specified period. The samples were then evaluated for water absorption, weight loss, and pH changes. Cell behavioral and antibacterial tests were performed to evaluate the growth of scaffolds in the body. Additionally, the compressive strength test results are incorporated into simulation and modeling analyses under static loading and micromechanical models. Finally, the circle-shaped scaffold containing titanium sample was chosen as a suitable scaffold due to its 78% porosity, 27% apatite formation, 75˚ wetting angle, 15% weight loss after 7 days, and 99% biocompatibility. Finally, the bio-nanocomposite scaffold can attach to the cell and then gradually degrade, preserving the implant’s mechanical properties for the regeneration process.
Published: 25 October 2021
by MDPI
Mathematics, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/math9212700

Abstract:
Astrocyte cells form the largest cell population in the brain and can influence neuron behavior. These cells provide appropriate feedback control in regulating neuronal activities in the Central Nervous System (CNS). This paper presents a set of equations as a model to describe the interactions between neurons and astrocyte. A VHDL–AMS-based tripartite synapse model that includes a pre-synaptic neuron, the synaptic terminal, a post-synaptic neuron, and an astrocyte cell is presented. In this model, the astrocyte acts as a controller module for neurons and can regulates the spiking activity of them. Simulation results show that by regulating the coupling coefficients of astrocytes, spiking frequency of neurons can be reduced and the activity of neuronal cells is modulated.
Yan Cao, Sagr Alamri, Ali A. Rajhi, Ali E. Anqi,
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 192, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.09.192

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Hamidreza Aghamiri, Mohammadreza Niknejadi, Davood Toghraie
Published: 8 September 2021
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-97152-3

Abstract:
In the present work, the forced convection of nanofluid flow in a microchannel containing rotating cylinders is investigated in different geometries. The heat flux applied to the microchannel wall is 10,000 W m−2. The effects of Reynolds number, the volume fraction of nanoparticles, and the porosity percentage of the porous medium are investigated on the flow fields, temperature, and heat transfer rate. Reynolds number values vary from Re = 250–1000, non-dimensional rotational velocities 1 and 2, respectively, and volume fraction of nanoparticles 0–2%. The results show that increasing the velocity of rotating cylinders increases the heat transfer; also, increasing the Reynolds number and volume fraction of nanoparticles increases the heat transfer, pressure drop, and Cf,ave. By comparing the porosity percentages with each other, it is concluded that due to the greater contact of the nanofluid with the porous medium and the creation of higher velocity gradients, the porosity percentage is 45% and the values of are 90% higher than the porosity percentage. Comparing porosity percentages with each other, at porosity percentage 90% is greater than at porosity percentage 45%. On the other hand, increasing the Reynolds number reduces the entropy generation due to heat transfer and increases the entropy generation due to friction. Increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles increases the entropy generations due to heat transfer and friction.
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