(searched for: doi:10.1101/2021.07.21.21260624)
Communications Biology, Volume 5, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-022-03380-2
Polymorphic genomic inversions are chromosomal variants with intrinsic variability that play important roles in evolution, environmental adaptation, and complex traits. We investigated the DNA methylation patterns of three common human inversions, at 8p23.1, 16p11.2, and 17q21.31 in 1,009 blood samples from children from the Human Early Life Exposome (HELIX) project and in 39 prenatal heart tissue samples. We found inversion-state specific methylation patterns within and nearby flanking each inversion region in both datasets. Additionally, numerous inversion-exposure interactions on methylation levels were identified from early-life exposome data comprising 64 exposures. For instance, children homozygous at inv-8p23.1 and higher meat intake were more susceptible to TDH hypermethylation (P = 3.8 × 10−22); being the inversion, exposure, and gene known risk factors for adult obesity. Inv-8p23.1 associated hypermethylation of GATA4 was also detected across numerous exposures. Our data suggests that the pleiotropic influence of inversions during development and lifetime could be substantially mediated by allele-specific methylation patterns which can be modulated by the exposome.
Genes, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12111842
Host genomic information, specifically genomic variations, may characterize susceptibility to disease and identify people with a higher risk of harm, leading to better targeting of care and vaccination. Italy was the epicentre for the spread of COVID-19 in Europe, the first country to go into a national lockdown and has one of the highest COVID-19 associated mortality rates. Qatar, on the other hand has a very low mortality rate. In this study, we compared whole-genome sequencing data of 14398 adults and Qatari-national to 925 Italian individuals. We also included in the comparison whole-exome sequence data from 189 Italian laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases. We focused our study on a curated list of 3619 candidate genes involved in innate immunity and host-pathogen interaction. Two population-gene metric scores, the Delta Singleton-Cohort variant score (DSC) and Sum Singleton-Cohort variant score (SSC), were applied to estimate the presence of selective constraints in the Qatari population and in the Italian cohorts. Results based on DSC and SSC metrics demonstrated a different selective pressure on three genes (MUC5AC, ABCA7, FLNA) between Qatari and Italian populations. This study highlighted the genetic differences between Qatari and Italian populations and identified a subset of genes involved in innate immunity and host-pathogen interaction.