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(searched for: doi:10.14202/vetworld.2021.1774-1783)
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, Azza H. Hassan, Mona R. El-Ansary
Published: 23 November 2022
Scientific Reports, Volume 12, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-24593-9

Abstract:
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of etanercept (ETA)—an anti-tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) monoclonal antibody—on metabolic disorders such as obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance associated with the metabolic syndrome (MS). MS was induced in rats via high-fat high-fructose (HFHF) administration for 8 weeks. Rats were divided into three groups: negative control, HFHF model, and ETA-treated groups [HFHF + ETA (0.8 mg/kg/twice weekly, subcutaneously) administered in the last 4 weeks]. ETA effectively diminished the prominent features of MS via a significant reduction in the percent body weight gain along with the modulation of adipokine levels, resulting in a significant elevation of serum adiponectin consistent with TNF-α and serum leptin level normalization. Moreover, ETA enhanced dyslipidemia and the elevated blood pressure. ETA managed the prominent features of MS and its associated complications via the downregulation of the hepatic inflammatory pathway that induces nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)—from the expression of Toll-like receptor 4, nuclear factor kappa B, and TNF-α until that of transforming growth factor—in addition to significant improvements in glucose utilization, insulin sensitivity, and liver function parameter activity and histopathological examination. ETA was effective for the treatment of all prominent features of MS and its associated complications, such as type II diabetes mellitus and NASH.
Helen I'Anson, Hannah R. Archer, Hannah J. Choi, Tiffany B. Ko, Carissa L. Rodriguez, Mariam A. Samuel, Kelly A. Bezold, Gregg B. Whitworth
Published: 1 September 2022
Heba F. El-Domiaty, , Mona A. Kora, Nader G. Zaki, Suzan A. Khodir
Published: 12 August 2022
Frontiers in Medicine, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.904756

Abstract:
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) through many mechanisms, including activation of the renin–angiotensin system. The deleterious effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) can be counterbalanced by angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Diminazene aceturate (DIZE), an anti-trypanosomal drug, can activate ACE2.Objective: This study aimed to investigate the possible reno-protective effects of DIZE in MetS rats with elucidation of related mechanisms.Materials and methods: Thirty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided equally into control, MetS, and MetS + DIZE groups. Body weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and urinary albumin levels were measured. Serum levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, uric acid, lipid profile, urea, and creatinine were measured. Homeostasis Model Assessment Index (HOMA-IR) was estimated. Subsequently, renal levels of ACE2, Ang II, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured with histopathological and immunohistochemical assessment of TLR4 and NF-κB in renal tissues.Results: MetS caused dyslipidemia with significant increases in body weight, SBP, FBG, serum insulin, HOMA-IR, uric acid, urea, creatinine, urinary albumin, and renal levels of Ang II, MDA, and TNF-α, whereas renal ACE2 and GSH were significantly decreased. Renal TLR4 and NF-κB immunoreactivity in MetS rats was upregulated. DIZE supplementation of MetS rats induced significant improvements in renal function parameters; this could be explained by the ability of DIZE to activate renal ACE2 and decrease renal Ang II levels with downregulation of renal TLR4 and NF-κB expression.Conclusion: DIZE exerts a reno-protective effect in MetS, mainly by downregulating renal TLR4 and NF-κB levels.
Published: 12 August 2022
by MDPI
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Volume 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23169023

Abstract:
The effects of a fructose-rich diet and chronic stress on copper metabolism in the kidneys are still understudied. We investigated whether fructose and/or chronic unpredictable stress modulate copper metabolism in a way that affects redox homeostasis, thus contributing to progression of metabolic disturbances in the kidney. We determined protein level of copper transporters, chaperones, and cuproenzymes including cytochrome c oxidase, as well as antioxidant enzymes function in the kidneys of male Wistar rats subjected to 20% liquid fructose supplementation and/or chronic stress. Liquid fructose supplementation increased level of copper chaperone of superoxide dismutase and decreased metallothionein level, while rendering the level of copper importer and copper chaperones involved in copper delivery to mitochondria and trans Golgi network unaffected. Stress had no effect on renal copper metabolism. The activity and expression of renal antioxidant enzymes remained unaltered in all experimental groups. In conclusion, fructose, independently of stress, decreased renal copper level, and modulated renal copper metabolism as to preserve vital cellular function including mitochondrial energy production and antioxidative defense, at the expense of intracellular copper storage.
Thomas D Clark, Amy C Reichelt, Olivia Ghosh-Swaby, Stephen J Simpson,
Published: 20 January 2022
Physiology & Behavior, Volume 247; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2022.113713

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