(searched for: doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics13050743)
Published: 30 June 2022
by IGI Global
The chapter is a review on ethno-botanical studies on medicinal trees of the biotype Sertão, which comprises 80% areal of Pernambuco, Brazil. Since 1990, interest for natural remedies has grown rapidly. The main reason is the development of antibiotic resistance. Another fact driving this interest is the cost for developing secure, active, non-harming medicines by working through organic syntheses. The scope of this review is to throw light on the huge treasure of public knowledge in applying herbs, trees, and shrubs for the cure of many diseases. The consciousness of what nature can deliver practically free of costs and labor goes back for generations, transmitted within the tribes and between neighbors. Activities, toxicology, side-effects are all empirically gained wisdom. The Sertão has tropical climate and a diversified flora. The review is on trees containing valuable second metabolites which have physiological curing activity. This review may attract interest for inter-college collaboration within the scope of drug design guided by ethno-knowledge.
Molecules, Volume 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27072136
Michelia formosana (Kanehira) Masamune is a broad-leaved species widespread in East Asia; the wood extract and its constituents possess antifungal activity against wood-decay fungi. Antifungal activities of leaf essential oil and its constituents from M. formosana were investigated in the present study. Bioassay-guided isolation was applied to isolate the phytochemicals from leaf essential oil. 1D and 2D NMR, FTIR, and MS spectroscopic analyses were applied to elucidate the chemical structures of isolated compounds. Leaf essential oil displayed antifungal activity against wood decay fungi and was further separated into 11 fractions by column chromatography. Four sesquiterpenoids were isolated and identified from the active fractions of leaf essential oil through bioassay-guided isolation. Among these sesquiterpenoids, guaiol, bulnesol, and β-elemol have higher antifungal activity against brown-rot fungus Laetiporus sulphureus and white-rot fungus Lenzites betulina. Leaf essential oil and active compounds showed better antifungal activity against L. sulphureus than against L. betulina. The molecular structure of active sesquiterpenoids all contain the hydroxyisopropyl group. Antifungal sesquiterpenoids from M. formosana leaf essential oil show potential as natural fungicides for decay control of lignocellulosic materials.
Pharmaceutics, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14020351
The objective of the present study is to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Taiwania cryptomerioides essential oil and its phytochemical on the Hep G2 cell line (human hepatocellular carcinoma). Bark essential oil has significant cytotoxicity to Hep G2 cells, and S3 fraction is the most active fraction in cytotoxicity to Hep G2 cells among the six fractions. The diterpenoid quinone, 6,7-dehydroroyleanone, was isolated from the active S3 fraction by bioassay-guided isolation. 6,7-Dehydroroyleanone exhibited significant cytotoxicity in Hep G2 cells, and the efficacy of 6,7-dehydroroyleanone was better than the positive control, etoposide. Apoptosis analysis of Hep G2 cells with different treatments was characterized via flow cytometry to confirm the cell death situation. Etoposide and 6,7-dehydroroyleanone could induce the apoptosis in Hep G2 cells using flow cytometric assay. Results revealed 6,7-dehydroroyleanone from T. cryptomerioides bark essential oil can be a potential phytochemical to develop the anticancer chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of the human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Pharmaceutics, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13071059
The melanogenesis inhibition effect in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and antityrosinase activity of the ethanolic extract and its phytochemicals from Ceylon olive (Elaeocarpus serratus Linn.) leaves were investigated in this study. Among the leaf extract and four soluble fractions, the ethyl acetate soluble fraction exhibits the best antityrosinase and antimelanogenesis activities. One phenolic acid, gallic acid, and two flavonoids, myricetin and mearnsetin, are isolated from the active subfractions through the bioassay-guided isolation; their structures are elucidated based on the 1D and 2D NMR, FTIR, UV, and MS spectroscopic analyses. These compounds have significant antityrosinase activity whether using l-tyrosine or l-DOPA as the substrate; mearnsetin shows the optimal activity. In the enzyme kinetic investigation, both gallic acid and mearnsetin are the competitive-type inhibitors against mushroom tyrosinase, and myricetin acts as a mixed-type tyrosinase inhibitor. Leaf extract and an ethyl acetate soluble fraction show effective performance in the inhibition of melanin formation in zebrafish embryos. Mearnsetin also possesses a promising antimelanogenesis effect, which is superior to the positive control, arbutin. Results reveal that the Ceylon olive leaf extract and its phytochemicals, especially mearnsetin, have the potential to be used as antimelanogenesis and skin-whitening ingredients.