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(searched for: doi:10.15829/1728-8800-2021-2539)
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Published: 10 October 2021
by MDPI
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222010928

Abstract:
The metabolic processes of endo- and exogenous compounds play an important role in diagnosing and treating patients since many metabolites are laboratory biomarkers and/or targets for therapeutic agents. Cardiac troponins are one of the most critical biomarkers to diagnose cardiovascular diseases, including acute myocardial infarction. The study of troponin metabolism is of great interest as it opens up new possibilities for optimizing laboratory diagnostics. This article discusses in detail the key stages of the cardiac troponins metabolism, in particular the mechanisms of release from a healthy myocardium, mechanisms of circulation in the bloodstream, possible mechanisms of troponin penetration into other biological fluids (oral fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, pericardial and amniotic fluids), mechanisms of elimination of cardiac troponins from the blood, and daily changes in the levels of troponins in the blood. Considering these aspects of cardiac troponin metabolism, attention is focused on the potential value for clinical practice.
Published: 2 September 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Although cardiac troponins are considered the most specific biomarkers for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), their diagnostic consideration goes far beyond the detection of this dangerous disease. The mechanisms of cardiac troponin elevation are extremely numerous and not limited to ischemic necrosis of cardiac myocytes. Practitioners should be well aware of the underlying pathological and physiological conditions that can lead to elevated serum levels of cardiac troponins to avoid differential diagnostic errors, which will be greatly increased if clinicians rely on laboratory data alone. This article presents a classification of the main causes of an elevation in cardiac troponins and discusses in detail the mechanisms of such elevation and the diagnostic consideration of cardiac troponins in some conditions not associated with AMI, such as physical exertion, inflammatory heart diseases (myocarditis and endocarditis), pulmonary embolism (PE), renal failure, and systemic inflammation (sepsis).
Vascular Health and Risk Management, pp 431-443; https://doi.org/10.2147/vhrm.s315376

Abstract:
In modern laboratory diagnostics of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), there is a clear tendency toward an increase in the sensitivity of methods for determining key CVD biomarkers, among which highly sensitive cardiac troponins (hs-Tn) deserve special attention. The introduction of the latter into clinical practice made it possible not only to improve the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction but also to open up a number of additional valuable opportunities for the use of hs-Tn, including the assessment of the risk of developing CVD in a healthy population, detection and monitoring of early myocardial injuries in the early stages of CVD development (for example, with ischemic heart disease and arterial hypertension), with noncardiac pathologies (for example, sepsis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic renal failure, stroke, cancer, etc), and diagnostics of CVD by using biological fluids that can be obtained by noninvasive methods. This article discusses in detail the diagnostic value of hs-Tn in serum and urine in cases of arterial hypertension. Also, the paper pays considerable attention to the consideration of the mechanisms underlying the increase in hs-Tn in serum and urine in cases of arterial hypertension.
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