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(searched for: doi:10.1016/j.euros.2021.03.008)
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, Parita Ratnani, Micah Levy, , Mariely Garcia, Adriana M. Pedraza, Sneha Parekh, Krunal Pandav, Bhavya Shukla, Stanislaw Sobotka, et al.
Published: 31 May 2021
The Prostate, Volume 81, pp 772-777; doi:10.1002/pros.24174

Abstract:
Background Efforts are ongoing to try and find ways to reduce the number of unnecessary prostate biopsies without missing clinically significant prostate cancers (csPCa). The utility of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in detecting prostate cancer (PCa) shows promise to be used as triage test for systematic prostate biopsy. Our aim is to Study clinical parameters and oncological outcomes in men with negative mpMRI (nMRI; PI-RADS v2 scores of ≤ 2) who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) to evaluate nMRI's practicality as a biopsy triage test. Methods Retrospective analysis of 331 men with nMRI who underwent RARP between 2014 and 2020 compared with men with positive mpMRI (pMRI; PI-RADS v2 scores ≥ 3, N = 1770). csPCa was defined as Gleason score ≥ 3 + 4 and biochemical recurrence (BCR) was defined as PSA > 0.2 ng/ml on two occasions. Biopsies were graded with the International Society of Urologic Pathology [ISUP] grade. Descriptive statistics for nMRI and pMRI were performed. Mann–Whitney U test was used for continuous variables and χ2 for categorical variables. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were performed. Results Univariable analysis shows statistically significant difference (p < .05) between median age (nMRI-61 years vs. pMRI 63 years), race (higher incidence of nMRI in African American men), use of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (higher rate in nMRI). While incidence rates of family history of PCa, suspicious digital rectal examination (DRE) findings, median PSA levels and 4Kscore, were lower in nMRI versus pMRI. Rates of positive surgical margins and BCR were comparable in nMRI versus pMRI. Biopsy ISUP Grades I and II upgraded by 51% and 12%, respectively in final pathology. African American race and no history of the prior negative biopsy were significant predictors for upgrading. Conclusion Men with nMRI pose diagnostic challenges as they tend to be younger patients with lower rates of suspicious DRE findings and lower 4K scores, yet comparable oncological outcomes in csPCa rates, positive surgical margins, and BCR rates.
Published: 28 May 2021
by MDPI
Diagnostics, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/diagnostics11060973

Abstract:
Recently, Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems have been proposed to help radiologists in detecting and characterizing Prostate Cancer (PCa). However, few studies evaluated the performances of these systems in a clinical setting, especially when used by non-experienced readers. The main aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic performance of non-experienced readers when reporting assisted by the likelihood map generated by a CAD system, and to compare the results with the unassisted interpretation. Three resident radiologists were asked to review multiparametric-MRI of patients with and without PCa, both unassisted and assisted by a CAD system. In both reading sessions, residents recorded all positive cases, and sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values were computed and compared. The dataset comprised 90 patients (45 with at least one clinically significant biopsy-confirmed PCa). Sensitivity significantly increased in the CAD assisted mode for patients with at least one clinically significant lesion (GS > 6) (68.7% vs. 78.1%, p = 0.018). Overall specificity was not statistically different between unassisted and assisted sessions (94.8% vs. 89.6, p = 0.072). The use of the CAD system significantly increases the per-patient sensitivity of inexperienced readers in the detection of clinically significant PCa, without negatively affecting specificity, while significantly reducing overall reporting time.
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