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(searched for: doi:10.29328/journal.jhcr.1001016)
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Ayaka Hayashi, , Mayuko Kawabe, Akimitsu Kobayashi, Makoto Ito, Kiyohiko Hotta, Nobuo Shinohara, Tetsunori Tasaki, Takashi Yokoo, Daiki Iwami
Published: 10 March 2022
Frontiers in Immunology, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.862652

Abstract:
Background: A positive flow-cytometry T cell crossmatch (FTXM) has important prognostic implications, even when the complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch is negative. Recent studies have shown that ABO incompatibility is associated with positive FTXM, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Cases: In five ABO blood type O recipients of kidneys from wives with type B, FTXM was positive but complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch was negative. Application of a solid-phase technique (LABScreen) revealed no case with antibodies to donor-specific human leukocyte antigen. After removal of type B antibodies from patient sera, FTXM was negative for all five patients. In one tested case, the eluate prepared from the donor’s T lymphocyte agglutinated only type B red blood cells, implying the existence of blood type B substances on donor T lymphocytes. Discussion: False-positive FTXM reflects blood type B substrates bound to T lymphocytes. Repeat FTXM after incubation with donor-type red blood cells (to adsorb anti-ABO antibodies) was negative. This phenomenon explains the discrepancy between FTXM and solid-phase bead assays. Demonstration of type B substances on donor T lymphocytes is necessary before absolute test validity is confirmed. Conclusion: False-positive FTXM may be associated with type B antibodies bound to T lymphocytes when a blood type O recipient receives tissue from a type B donor. This phenomenon explains the false-positive FTXM observed in the setting of ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation.
Transfusion Clinique et Biologique, Volume 28, pp 414-419; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tracli.2021.05.010

Abstract:
In this unprecedented crisis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and its associated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), polymerase chain reaction and then serological testing platforms have been massively developed to face the important screening demand. Polymerase chain reaction and serological testing platforms are not the only actors impacted by the crisis, transfusion services are facing important difficulties. A positive direct antiglobulin test is frequently observed for patients encountering COVID-19. Patients with severe symptoms may develop anaemia and become good candidates for blood transfusions. The interpretation of a positive direct antiglobulin test for patients recently transfused and suffering from COVID-19 is complex. The differentiation between COVID-19 induced antibodies and possible associated transfusion alloantibodies is therefore crucial. In this context, the elution technique incorporated in an appropriate decision-making process plays its full role. This intricate topic is presented through a case report followed by literature review and finally decision-making process for COVID-19 patients necessitating red blood cells administration.
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