(searched for: doi:10.2807/1560-7917.es.2021.26.13.2100333)
Published: 1 August 2022
Journal: JAMA Network Open
JAMA Network Open, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.28008
Importance: Several studies were conducted to estimate the average incubation period of COVID-19; however, the incubation period of COVID-19 caused by different SARS-CoV-2 variants is not well described.Objective: To systematically assess the incubation period of COVID-19 and the incubation periods of COVID-19 caused by different SARS-CoV-2 variants in published studies.Data Sources: PubMed, EMBASE, and ScienceDirect were searched between December 1, 2019, and February 10, 2022.Study Selection: Original studies of the incubation period of COVID-19, defined as the time from infection to the onset of signs and symptoms.Data Extraction and Synthesis: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline, 3 reviewers independently extracted the data from the eligible studies in March 2022. The parameters, or sufficient information to facilitate calculation of those values, were derived from random-effects meta-analysis.Main Outcomes and Measures: The mean estimate of the incubation period and different SARS-CoV-2 strains.Results: A total of 142 studies with 8112 patients were included. The pooled incubation period was 6.57 days (95% CI, 6.26-6.88) and ranged from 1.80 to 18.87 days. The incubation period of COVID-19 caused by the Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants were reported in 1 study (with 6374 patients), 1 study (10 patients), 6 studies (2368 patients) and 5 studies (829 patients), respectively. The mean incubation period of COVID-19 was 5.00 days (95% CI, 4.94-5.06 days) for cases caused by the Alpha variant, 4.50 days (95% CI, 1.83-7.17 days) for the Beta variant, 4.41 days (95% CI, 3.76-5.05 days) for the Delta variant, and 3.42 days (95% CI, 2.88-3.96 days) for the Omicron variant. The mean incubation was 7.43 days (95% CI, 5.75-9.11 days) among older patients (ie, aged over 60 years old), 8.82 days (95% CI, 8.19-9.45 days) among infected children (ages 18 years or younger), 6.99 days (95% CI, 6.07-7.92 days) among patients with nonsevere illness, and 6.69 days (95% CI, 4.53-8.85 days) among patients with severe illness.Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that SARS-CoV-2 has evolved and mutated continuously throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, producing variants with different enhanced transmission and virulence. Identifying the incubation period of different variants is a key factor in determining the isolation period.
Published: 10 March 2022
Journal: Frontiers in Medicine
Frontiers in Medicine, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.828402
Objectives: The clinical outcomes of the Beta (B.1.351) variant of concern (VOC) of the SARS-CoV-2 virus remain poorly understood. In early 2021, northeastern France experienced an outbreak of Beta that was not observed elsewhere. This outbreak slightly preceded and then overlapped with a second outbreak of the better understood VOC Alpha (B.1.1.7) in the region. This situation allowed us to contemporaneously compare Alpha and Beta in terms of the characteristics, management, and outcomes of critically ill patients. Methods: A multicenter prospective cohort study was conducted on all consecutive adult patients who had laboratory confirmed SARS CoV-2 infection, underwent variant screening, and were admitted to one of four intensive care units (ICU) for acute respiratory failure between January 9th and May 15th, 2021. Primary outcome was 60-day mortality. Differences between Alpha and Beta in terms of other outcomes, patient variables, management, and vaccination characteristics were also explored by univariate analysis. The factors that associated with 60-day death in Alpha- and Beta-infected patients were examined with logistic regression analysis. Results: In total, 333 patients (median age, 63 years; 68% male) were enrolled. Of these, 174 and 159 had Alpha and Beta, respectively. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of 60-day mortality (19 vs. 23%), 28-day mortality (17 vs. 20%), need for mechanical ventilation (60 vs. 61%), mechanical ventilation duration (14 vs. 15 days), other management variables, patient demographic variables, comorbidities, or clinical variables on ICU admission. The vast majority of patients were unvaccinated (94%). The remaining 18 patients had received a partial vaccine course and 2 were fully vaccinated. The vaccinated patients were equally likely to have Alpha and Beta. Conclusions: Beta did not differ from Alpha in terms of patient characteristics, management, or outcomes in critically ill patients. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT04906850.
Published: 17 September 2021
Journal: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Infectious Diseases of Poverty, Volume 10, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40249-021-00901-9
Background: The incubation period is a crucial index of epidemiology in understanding the spread of the emerging Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, we aimed to describe the incubation period of COVID-19 globally and in the mainland of China. Methods: The searched studies were published from December 1, 2019 to May 26, 2021 in CNKI, Wanfang, PubMed, and Embase databases. A random-effect model was used to pool the mean incubation period. Meta-regression was used to explore the sources of heterogeneity. Meanwhile, we collected 11 545 patients in the mainland of China outside Hubei from January 19, 2020 to September 21, 2020. The incubation period fitted with the Log-normal model by the coarseDataTools package. Results: A total of 3235 articles were searched, 53 of which were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled mean incubation period of COVID-19 was 6.0 days (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.6–6.5) globally, 6.5 days (95% CI 6.1–6.9) in the mainland of China, and 4.6 days (95% CI 4.1–5.1) outside the mainland of China (P = 0.006). The incubation period varied with age (P = 0.005). Meanwhile, in 11 545 patients, the mean incubation period was 7.1 days (95% CI 7.0–7.2), which was similar to the finding in our meta-analysis. Conclusions: For COVID-19, the mean incubation period was 6.0 days globally but near 7.0 days in the mainland of China, which will help identify the time of infection and make disease control decisions. Furthermore, attention should also be paid to the region- or age-specific incubation period. Graphic
Published: 1 January 2021
Journal: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Indian Journal of Pharmacology, Volume 53, pp 310-316
Knowledge of a new mutant strain of SARS-coronavirus (CoV-2) is enormously essential to identify a targeted drug and for the development of the vaccine. In this article, we systematically reviewed the different mutation strains (variant of concern [VOC] and variant of interest [VOI]) which were found in different countries such as the UK, Singapore, China, Germany, Vietnam, Western Africa, Dublin, Ireland, Brazil, Iran, Italy, France, America, and Philippines. We searched four literature databases (PubMed, EMBASE, NATURE, and Willey online library) with suitable keywords and the time filter was November 2019 to June 16, 2021. To understand the worldwide spread of variants of SARS-CoV-2, we included a total of 27 articles of case reports, clinical and observational studies in the systematic review. However, these variants mostly spread because of their ability to increase transmission, virulence, and escape immunity. So, in this paper is we found mutated strains of SARS-CoV-2 like VOCs that are found in different regions across the globe are ALPHA strain in the U.K, BETA strain in South Africa, GAMMA strain in Brazil, Gamma and Beta strains in European Countries, and some VOIs like Theta variant in the Philippines.
Published: 1 January 2021
by Elsevier BV
Journal: SSRN Electronic Journal
SSRN Electronic Journal; https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3889352
Background: The healthcare workers (HCWs) have been on the frontline in combating the pandemic and were prioritized for vaccination when COVID-19 vaccines became available. Although vaccines effectively prevent infection in most cases, some cases of post-vaccination infections have been reported, raising concerns about vaccine efficacy. This study investigated the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in preventing and reducing the severity of post-vaccination infections (PVI) among HCWs. Methods: This observational study examined 28342 vaccinated HCWs with SARS-CoV-2 (symptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infections during the initial five months of vaccination (January 16-June 15, 2021). They worked at 43 Apollo Group hospitals in 24 Indian cities. PVI was investigated after recombinant ChAdOx nCOV-19 (Recombinant) or the whole virion inactivated Vero cell vaccines were administered. Various parameters were evaluated such as age, sex, time to infection, type of vaccine, infections after a single and two doses, monthly and regional case distribution, clinical severity of infection, hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) requirement, and death. Findings: Symptomatic PVIs occurred in a low percentage of vaccinated cohorts (5⸱07%, p<0⸱001), and these were predominantly mild and did not result in hospitalization, ICU admissions (p<0⸱0001), or death. Both vaccines provided similar protection, with PVI incidences of 5⸱11% and 4⸱58%, following ChAdOx nCOV-19 (Recombinant) and the whole virion inactivated Vero cell vaccines, respectively (p50 years significantly contracted more infections(p<0⸱001 and p=0⸱001, respectively). Two-dose vaccination has significantly lower odds of developing PVI (0.83, 95%CI – 0.72 to 0.97). Maximum infections occurred during the peak of the second COVID-19 wave from mid-April to May 2021 (p<0⸱001). No significant difference existed in the infection between sex, vaccine type, and the number of vaccine doses received (p≥0⸱05). Interpretation: PVI occurred in a small percentage of HCWs. Vaccination protected them significantly from the infection but also severe disease. Funding Information: None. Declaration of Interests: None. Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by an Ethical Institutional Committee (EIC), and a consent waiver was given by the EIC.