(searched for: doi:10.1186/s12933-021-01252-3)
Biomarker Research, Volume 9, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40364-021-00322-8
Background Extracellular vesicles are membrane vesicles that are released into the extracellular environment and accumulate in the circulation in vascular disease. We aimed to quantify circulating extracellular vesicles in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes and to examine associations between extracellular vesicle levels, continuous glucose measures, and pregnancy outcomes. Methods We used plasma samples from the Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Women with Type 1 Diabetes in Pregnancy Trial study and quantified circulating extracellular vesicles by flow cytometry (n = 163). Relationships with clinical variables were assessed by repeated measures correlation. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between elevated extracellular vesicle levels and pregnancy outcomes. Results Platelet extracellular vesicle levels were inversely associated with glucose time above range and glycaemic variability measures (P < 0.05). A weak positive association was observed between endothelial extracellular vesicles and mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (P < 0.05). In a univariate logistic regression model, high baseline endothelial extracellular vesicles was associated with increased risk of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission (OR: 2.06, 1.03–4.10), and respiratory distress requiring ventilation (OR: 4.98, 1.04–23.92). After adjusting for HbA1c and blood pressure the relationship for NICU admission persisted and an association with hyperbilirubinemia was seen (OR: 2.56, 1.10–5.94). Elevated platelet extracellular vesicles were associated with an increased risk of NICU admission (OR: 2.18, 1.04–4.57), and hyperbilirubinemia (OR: 2.61, 1.11–6.12) after adjusting for HbA1c and blood pressure. Conclusions High levels of extracellular vesicles in early pregnancy were associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. Assessment of extracellular vesicles may represent a novel approach to personalized care in type 1 diabetes pregnancy.
Frontiers in Pharmacology, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.700366
Background: Cardiac fibroblast (CF) activation is a hallmark feature of cardiac fibrosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Inhibition of the sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) attenuates cardiomyocyte apoptosis and delays the development of DCM. However, the role of SGLT1 in CF activation remains unclear. Methods: A rat model of DCM was established and treated with si‐SGLT1 to examine cardiac fibrosis. In addition, in vitro experiments were conducted to verify the regulatory role of SGLT1 in proliferation and collagen secretion in high-glucose– (HG–) treated CFs. Results: SGLT1 was found to be upregulated in diabetic cardiac tissues and HG-induced CFs. HG stimulation resulted in increased proliferation and migration, increased the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 and collagen I and collagen III, and increased phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. These trends in HG-treated CFs were significantly reversed by si-SGLT1. Moreover, the overexpression of SGLT1 promoted CF proliferation and collagen synthesis and increased phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and ERK1/2. SGLT1 silencing significantly alleviated cardiac fibrosis, but had no effect on cardiac hypertrophy in diabetic hearts. Conclusion: These findings provide new information on the role of SGLT1 in CF activation, suggesting a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of DCM fibrosis.