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(searched for: doi:10.4274/jtgga.galenos.2021.2020.0202)
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, Nilgün Şen, Gökhan Ibrahim Ögünç, Ayşegül Erdoğan
Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.1080/00450618.2022.2043436

Abstract:
The characterization of firearm discharge residue (FDR) as a piece of evidence plays an essential role in interpreting the forensic cases involving the use of firearms, such as robberies, murders, suicides, and serious attacks. In the last decade, modern or non-toxic primers have emerged due to environmental issues. Forensic examination of gunshot residue (GSR) has become challenging as primer compositions now vary greatly. The goal of this paper is to provide the elemental profiling of both toxic and lead-free cartridge primers available in the Turkish ammunition market. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used in this investigation. Multivariate statistical methodologies such as principal component analysis (PCA) and Pearson’s correlation coefficient (PCC) analysis were used to interpret the elemental profile data determined in the residue generated after ignition of the cartridge primers. Three components were observed: Ba-Sb-Pb-Cu-Gd, Ti-Sr-Zn, and Al-Ca-Ga, which is also consistent with the PCC analysis. SEM-EDS was employed to confirm the existence of GSR particles. The binding energies, determined using XPS, indicated the chemical state assignments in samples such as Pb(NO3)2, Sb2S3, Ba(NO3)2, CuO, ZnO and MoS2. This research will improve the robustness of the interpretation of GSR-related evidence.
Ozgur Oztan, Vugar Ali Türksoy, Serdar Deniz,
Anatolian Current Medical Journal, Volume 3, pp 246-250; https://doi.org/10.38053/acmj.959167

Abstract:
Objectives: Industrial and agricultural activities such as mining, smelting, and the discharging of industrial and domestic wastewater have increased the severity of heavy metal pollution in environments. Nickel poisoning continues to be an important occupational health problem in many branches of industry especially coating. Occupational exposure to nickel can occur through skin contact or inhalation of nickel-containing aerosols, dusts, or fumes. As a result of the toxic effect of nickel, it can cause various health problems, including respiratory and dermatological effects. Methods: The study included 56 male workers exposed to nickel in coating factory (Ni-exposed group) and 44 non-exposed male workers (control group). Vascular Cell Adhesion protein (VCAM)-1, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α, Interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-6 levels of serum were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Ni levels were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in urine samples. Results: Significant intergroup differences were observed in the levels of all inflammatory parameters such as VCAM-1, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-6 (p<0.01 for all). Conclusions: The correlations between increased inflammatory biomarkers levels and exposed/control groups suggests a close relationship between inflammation and toxicity. This relationship provides a clinical model for the early diagnosis of toxicity of nickel.
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