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(searched for: doi:10.2196/25500)
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, Caroline Covini-Souris, Denis Kuehnel, Christian De Mey, Jürgen Römisch, Torben Schmidt
Published: 29 November 2021
BioDrugs, Volume 36, pp 41-53; https://doi.org/10.1007/s40259-021-00511-9

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Frederick K. Korley, Valerie Durkalski-Mauldin, Sharon D. Yeatts, Kevin Schulman, Robertson D. Davenport, Larry J. Dumont, Nahed El Kassar, Lydia D. Foster, , Siddartha Jaiswal, et al.
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 385, pp 1951-1960; https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa2103784

Abstract:
Early administration of convalescent plasma obtained from blood donors who have recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) may prevent disease progression in acutely ill, high-risk patients with Covid-19. In this randomized, multicenter, single-blind trial, we assigned patients who were being treated in an emergency department for Covid-19 symptoms to receive either one unit of convalescent plasma with a high titer of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or placebo. All the patients were either 50 years of age or older or had one or more risk factors for disease progression. In addition, all the patients presented to the emergency department within 7 days after symptom onset and were in stable condition for outpatient management. The primary outcome was disease progression within 15 days after randomization, which was a composite of hospital admission for any reason, seeking emergency or urgent care, or death without hospitalization. Secondary outcomes included the worst severity of illness on an 8-category ordinal scale, hospital-free days within 30 days after randomization, and death from any cause. A total of 511 patients were enrolled in the trial (257 in the convalescent-plasma group and 254 in the placebo group). The median age of the patients was 54 years; the median symptom duration was 4 days. In the donor plasma samples, the median titer of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies was 1:641. Disease progression occurred in 77 patients (30.0%) in the convalescent-plasma group and in 81 patients (31.9%) in the placebo group (risk difference, 1.9 percentage points; 95% credible interval, −6.0 to 9.8; posterior probability of superiority of convalescent plasma, 0.68). Five patients in the plasma group and 1 patient in the placebo group died. Outcomes regarding worst illness severity and hospital-free days were similar in the two groups. The administration of Covid-19 convalescent plasma to high-risk outpatients within 1 week after the onset of symptoms of Covid-19 did not prevent disease progression. (SIREN-C3PO ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04355767.)
Published: 10 November 2021
by MDPI
Mathematics, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/math9222857

Abstract:
In some diseases, due to the restrictive availability of vaccines on the market (e.g., during the early emergence of a new disease that may cause a pandemic such as COVID-19), the use of plasma transfusion is among the available options for handling such a disease. In this study, we developed an SEIR mathematical model of disease transmission dynamics, considering the use of convalescent plasma transfusion (CPT). In this model, we assumed that the effect of CPT increases patient survival or, equivalently, leads to a reduction in the length of stay during an infectious period. We attempted to answer the question of what the effects are of different rates of CPT applications in decreasing the number of infectives at the population level. Herein, we analyzed the model using standard procedures in mathematical epidemiology, i.e., finding the trivial and non-trivial equilibrium points of the system including their stability and their relation to basic and effective reproduction numbers. We showed that, in general, the effects of the application of CPT resulted in a lower peak of infection cases and other epidemiological measures. As a consequence, in the presence of CPT, lowering the height of an infective peak can be regarded as an increase in the number of remaining healthy individuals; thus, the use of CPT may decrease the burden of COVID-19 transmission.
Published: 11 September 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Convalescent plasma (CP) from patients recovered from COVID-19 is one of the most studied anti-viral therapies against SARS-COV-2 infection. The aim of this study is to summarize the evidence from the available systematic reviews on the efficacy and safety of CP in COVID-19 through an overview of the published systematic reviews (SRs). A systematic literature search was conducted up to August 2021 in Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane and Medrxiv databases to identify systematic reviews focusing on CP use in COVID-19. Two review authors independently evaluated reviews for inclusion, extracted data and assessed quality of evidence using AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Reviews) and GRADE tools. The following outcomes were analyzed: mortality, viral clearance, clinical improvement, length of hospital stay, adverse reactions. In addition, where possible, subgroup analyses were performed according to study design (e.g., RCTs vs. non-RCTs), CP neutralizing antibody titer and timing of administration, and disease severity. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the checklist for systematic reviews AMSTAR-2 and the GRADE assessment. Overall, 29 SRs met the inclusion criteria based on 53 unique primary studies (17 RCT and 36 non-RCT). Limitations to the methodological quality of reviews most commonly related to absence of a protocol (11/29) and funding sources of primary studies (27/29). Of the 89 analyses on which GRADE judgements were made, effect estimates were judged to be of high/moderate certainty in four analyses, moderate in 38, low in 38, very low in nine. Despite the variability in the certainty of the evidence, mostly related to the risk of bias and inconsistency, the results of this umbrella review highlight a mortality reduction in CP over standard therapy when administered early and at high titer, without increased adverse reactions.
, Mingfei Li, Ying Wang, Lewis E. Kazis, Kim Berlo, Noureddine Melikechi, Gregory R. Chiklis
Published: 18 August 2021
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-96171-4

Abstract:
Determining the sustainability of antibodies targeting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential for predicting immune response against the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To quantify the antibody decay rates among the varying levels of anti-nucleocapsid (anti-N) Immunoglobulin G (IgG) in convalescent COVID-19 patients and estimate the length of time they maintained SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies, we have collected longitudinal blood samples from 943 patients over the course of seven months after their initial detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus by RT-PCR. Anti-N IgG levels were then quantified in these blood samples. The primary study outcome was the comparison of antibody decay rates from convalescent patients with high or low initial levels of antibodies using a mixed linear model. Additional measures include the length of time that patients maintain sustainable levels of anti-N IgG. Antibody quantification of blood samples donated by the same subject multiple times shows a gradual decrease of IgG levels to the cutoff index level of 1.4 signal/cut-off (S/C) on the Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG test. In addition, this study shows that antibody reduction rate is dependent on initial IgG levels, and patients with initial IgG levels above 3 S/C show a significant 1.68-fold faster reduction rate compared to those with initial IgG levels below 3 S/C. For a majority of the donors naturally occurring anti-N antibodies were detected above the threshold for only four months after infection with SARS-CoV-2. This study is clinically important for the prediction of immune response capacity in COVID-19 patients.
, Caroline Covini-Souris, Denis Kuehnel, Christian De Mey, Jürgen Römisch, Torben Schmidt
Published: 13 August 2021
Abstract:
Introduction Patients suffering from primary or secondary immunodeficiency face times of increased insecurity and discomfort in the light of the raging Covid-19 pandemic, not knowing if and to what extend their comorbidities impact a potential Covid-19 course of disease. Furthermore, recently available vaccination options might not be amenable or effective for all patients of this heterogeneous population. Therefore, these patients often rely on passive immunization with plasma-derived, intravenous or subcutaneous immunoglobulin (IVIG/SCIG). Whether the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic and/or the progress in vaccination programs lead to increased and potentially protective titers in plasma-derived immunoglobulins (Ig) indicated e.g. for humoral immunodeficiency remains a pressing question for this patient population. Purpose Here we investigated SARS-CoV-2 reactivity of US plasma-derived IVIG/SCIG products from the end of 2020 until 06/2021 as well as in convalescent plasma (CP) from 05/2020 to 08/2020. Methods Final containers of IVIG/SCIG and CP donations were analyzed by commercial ELISA for SARS-CoV-2 S1-RBD IgG as well as microneutralization assay using a patient-derived SARS-CoV-2 (D614G) isolate. Neutralization capacities of 313 plasma single donations and 119 plasma-derived IVIG/SCIG lots were determined. Results obtained from both analytical methods were normalized against the international WHO standard. Finally, based on dense pharmacokinetic profiles of an IVIG preparation from previously published investigations, possible steady-state plasma levels of SARS-CoV-2 neutralization capacities were approximated based on currently measured anti-SARS-CoV-2 potencies in IVIG/SCIG preparations. Results CP donations presented with a high variability with regards to anti-SARS-reactivity in ELISA as well as in neutralization testing. While approximately 50% of convalescent donations were none/low neutralizing, approximately 10% were at or above 1000 IU/ml. IVIG/SCIG lots derived from pre-pandemic plasma donations did not show neutralizing capacities of SARS-CoV-2. Lots produced between 12/2020 and 06/2021, entailing plasma donations after emergence of SARS-CoV-2 showed a rapid and constant increase in anti-SARS-CoV-2 reactivity and neutralization capacity over time. Neutralization capacity increased from a mean of 20 IU/ml in 12/2020 to 505 IU/ml in 06/2021, while lot-to-lot variability was substantial. Pharmacokinetic (PK) extrapolations based on non-compartmental superposition principles using steady-state reference profiles from previously published PK investigations on IVIG in PID, yielded potential steady-state trough plasma levels of 16 IU/ml based on the average final container concentration from 05/2021 with 216 IU/ml. Maximum extrapolated trough levels could reach 64 IU/ml based on the latest maximal final container potency tested in 06/2021. Conclusions SARS-CoV-2 reactivity and neutralization capacity in IVIG/SCIG produced from US plasma rapidly and in part exponentially increased in the first half of 2021. The observed increase of final container potencies is likely trailing the serological status of the US donor population in terms of Covid-19 convalescence and vaccination by at least 5 months due to production lead times and should in principle continue at least until fall 2021. In summary, the data support rapidly increasing levels of SARS-COV-2 antibodies in IVIG/SCIG products implicating that a certain level of protection could be possible against COVID-19 for regularly substituted PID/SID patients. Nevertheless, more research to confirm, which plasma levels are needed for protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection of immune-compromised patients is still needed. Patients with humoral immunodeficiency rely on plasma-derived immunoglobulin for passive immunization against numerous pathogens. Plasma-derived immunoglobulins contain increasing SARS-CoV-2 neutralization capacities with ongoing Covid-19 pandemic and vaccination campaigns. Plasma-derived immunoglobulin in prophylactic use for immunodeficient patients could potentially aid against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the future.
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