(searched for: doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a039537)
Cancer Cell International, Volume 21, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12935-021-02195-1
Background Cumulative CT radiation damage was positively correlated with increased tumor risks. Although it has recently been known that non-radiation MRI is alternative for pulmonary imaging. There is little known about the value of MRI T1-mapping in the diagnosis of pulmonary nodules. This article aimed to investigate the value of native T1-mapping-based radiomics features in differential diagnosis of pulmonary lesions. Methods 73 patients underwent 3 T-MRI examination in this prospective study. The 99 pulmonary lesions on native T1-mapping images were segmented twice by one radiologist at indicated time points utilizing the in-house semi-automated software, followed by extraction of radiomics features. The inter-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used for analyzing intra-observer’s agreement. Dimensionality reduction and feature selection were performed via univariate analysis, and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) analysis. Then, the binary logical regression (LR), support vector machine (SVM) and decision tree classifiers with the input of optimal features were selected for differentiating malignant from benign lesions. The receiver operative characteristics (ROC) curve, area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated. Z-test was used to compare differences among AUCs. Results 107 features were obtained, of them, 19.5% (n = 21) had relatively good reliability (ICC ≥ 0.6). The remained 5 features (3 GLCM, 1 GLSZM and 1 shape features) by dimensionality reduction were useful. The AUC of LR was 0.82(95%CI: 0.67–0.98), with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 70%, 85% and 80%. The AUC of SVM was 0.82(95%CI: 0.67–0.98), with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 70, 85 and 80%. The AUC of decision tree was 0.69(95%CI: 0.49–0.87), with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 50, 85 and 73.3%. Conclusions The LR and SVM models using native T1-mapping-based radiomics features can differentiate pulmonary malignant from benign lesions, especially for uncertain nodules requiring long-term follow-ups.
Diagnostics, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11101844
Endotracheal tubes (ETTs) provide a vital connection between the ventilator and patient; however, improper placement can hinder ventilation efficiency or injure the patient. Chest X-ray (CXR) is the most common approach to confirming ETT placement; however, technicians require considerable expertise in the interpretation of CXRs, and formal reports are often delayed. In this study, we developed an artificial intelligence-based triage system to enable the automated assessment of ETT placement in CXRs. Three intensivists performed a review of 4293 CXRs obtained from 2568 ICU patients. The CXRs were labeled “CORRECT” or “INCORRECT” in accordance with ETT placement. A region of interest (ROI) was also cropped out, including the bilateral head of the clavicle, the carina, and the tip of the ETT. Transfer learning was used to train four pre-trained models (VGG16, INCEPTION_V3, RESNET, and DENSENET169) and two models developed in the current study (VGG16_Tensor Projection Layer and CNN_Tensor Projection Layer) with the aim of differentiating the placement of ETTs. Only VGG16 based on ROI images presented acceptable performance (AUROC = 92%, F1 score = 0.87). The results obtained in this study demonstrate the feasibility of using the transfer learning method in the development of AI models by which to assess the placement of ETTs in CXRs.
Cancers, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13194740
Artificial intelligence (AI) uses mathematical algorithms to perform tasks that require human cognitive abilities. AI-based methodologies, e.g., machine learning and deep learning, as well as the recently developed research field of radiomics have noticeable potential to transform medical diagnostics. AI-based techniques applied to medical imaging allow to detect biological abnormalities, to diagnostic neoplasms or to predict the response to treatment. Nonetheless, the diagnostic accuracy of these methods is still a matter of debate. In this article, we first illustrate the key concepts and workflow characteristics of machine learning, deep learning and radiomics. We outline considerations regarding data input requirements, differences among these methodologies and their limitations. Subsequently, a concise overview is presented regarding the application of AI methods to the evaluation of thyroid images. We developed a critical discussion concerning limits and open challenges that should be addressed before the translation of AI techniques to the broad clinical use. Clarification of the pitfalls of AI-based techniques results crucial in order to ensure the optimal application for each patient.
Cancers, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13112512
As of 2020 the human genome and proteome are both at >90% completion based on high stringency analyses. This has been largely achieved by major technological advances over the last 20 years and has enlarged our understanding of human health and disease, including cancer, and is supporting the current trend towards personalized/precision medicine. This is due to improved screening, novel therapeutic approaches and an increased understanding of underlying cancer biology. However, cancer is a complex, heterogeneous disease modulated by genetic, molecular, cellular, tissue, population, environmental and socioeconomic factors, which evolve with time. In spite of recent advances in treatment that have resulted in improved patient outcomes, prognosis is still poor for many patients with certain cancers (e.g., mesothelioma, pancreatic and brain cancer) with a high death rate associated with late diagnosis. In this review we overview key hallmarks of cancer (e.g., autophagy, the role of redox signaling), current unmet clinical needs, the requirement for sensitive and specific biomarkers for early detection, surveillance, prognosis and drug monitoring, the role of the microbiome and the goals of personalized/precision medicine, discussing how emerging omics technologies can further inform on these areas. Exemplars from recent onco-proteogenomic-related publications will be given. Finally, we will address future perspectives, not only from the standpoint of perceived advances in treatment, but also from the hurdles that have to be overcome.