(searched for: doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144832)
Environmental Research, Volume 197; doi:10.1016/j.envres.2021.111185
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Published: 13 May 2021
by MDPI AG
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/ijerph18105190
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex set of neurodevelopmental pathologies characterized by impoverished social and communicative abilities and stereotyped behaviors. Although its genetic basis is unquestionable, the involvement of environmental factors such as exposure to pesticides has also been proposed. Despite the systematic analyses of this relationship in humans, there are no specific reviews including both human and preclinical models. The present systematic review summarizes, analyzes, and discusses recent advances in preclinical and epidemiological studies. We included 45 human and 16 preclinical studies. These studies focused on Organophosphates (OP), Organochlorine (OC), Pyrethroid (PT), Neonicotinoid (NN), Carbamate (CM), and mixed exposures. Preclinical studies, where the OP Chlorpyrifos (CPF) compound is the one most studied, pointed to an association between gestational exposure and increased ASD-like behaviors, although the data are inconclusive with regard to other ages or pesticides. Studies in humans focused on prenatal exposure to OP and OC agents, and report cognitive and behavioral alterations related to ASD symptomatology. The results of both suggest that gestational exposure to certain OP agents could be linked to the clinical signs of ASD. Future experimental studies should focus on extending the analysis of ASD-like behaviors in preclinical models and include exposure patterns similar to those observed in human studies.
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, Volume 15; doi:10.3389/fncel.2021.662578
At the end of 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was discovered in China, causing a new coronavirus disease, termed COVID-19 by the WHO on February 11, 2020. At the time of this paper (January 31, 2021), more than 100 million cases have been recorded, which have claimed over 2 million lives worldwide. The most important clinical presentation of COVID-19 is severe pneumonia; however, many patients present various neurological symptoms, ranging from loss of olfaction, nausea, dizziness, and headache to encephalopathy and stroke, with a high prevalence of inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) syndromes. SARS-CoV-2 may also target the respiratory center in the brainstem and cause silent hypoxemia. However, the neurotropic mechanism(s) by which SARS-CoV-2 affects the CNS remain(s) unclear. In this paper, we first address the involvement of astrocytes in COVID-19 and then elucidate the present knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 as a neurotropic virus as well as several other neurotropic flaviviruses (with a particular emphasis on the West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Zika virus) to highlight the neurotropic mechanisms that target astroglial cells in the CNS. These key homeostasis-providing cells in the CNS exhibit many functions that act as a favorable milieu for virus replication and possibly a favorable environment for SARS-CoV-2 as well. The role of astrocytes in COVID-19 pathology, related to aging and neurodegenerative disorders, and environmental factors, is discussed. Understanding these mechanisms is key to better understanding the pathophysiology of COVID-19 and for developing new strategies to mitigate the neurotropic manifestations of COVID-19.