(searched for: doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144781)
Toxicology, Volume 458; doi:10.1016/j.tox.2021.152844
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a naturally occurring mycotoxin, is present in human placenta and cord blood. AFB1 at concentrations found in contaminated food commodities (0.25 and 0.5 μM) did not alter the spontaneous movement, heart rate, hatchability, or morphology of embryonic zebrafish. However, around 86 % of 0.25 μM AFB1-treated embryos had livers of reduced size, and AFB1 disrupted the hepatocyte structures, according to histological analysis. Additionally, AFB1 treatment that begins at any stage before 72 h post-fertilization (hpf) effectively reduced the size of embryonic livers. In hepatic areas, AFB1 suppressed the expression of Hhex and Prox1, which are two critical transcriptional factors for initiating hepatoblast specification. KEGG analysis based on transcriptome profiling indicated that p53 signaling and apoptosis are the only observed pathways in AFB1-treated embryos. AFB1 at 0.5 μM significantly activated the expression of tp53, mdm2, puma, noxa, pidd1, and gadd45aa genes that are related to the p53 pathway and also that of baxa, casp 8 and casp 3a in the apoptotic process. TUNEL staining demonstrated that AFB1 triggered the apoptosis of embryonic hepatocytes in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that the deficiency of both hhex and prox1 as well as hepatocyte apoptosis via the p53-Puma/Noxa-Bax axis may contribute to the embryonic liver shrinkage that is caused by AFB1.
Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 151; doi:10.1016/j.fct.2021.112124
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a mycotoxin often found in food and livestock feed. It can affect human and animal health and is especially damaging to the liver. This study aims to evaluate whether Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (hereafter referred to as B. amyloliquefaciens) B10 can alleviate the toxic effects of AFB1 and, if so, what mechanism is responsible for its action. Specific pathogen-free (SPF) Kunming mice (5–6 weeks old) were divided into four groups (Control, AFB1, B10 strain, and AFB1 + B10 strain) and conducted continuously via gavage for 28 days. Oxidation indices (MDA, T-AOC, SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT) were then measured using their liver tissues and liver coefficient were calculated. Apoptosis was determined using the TUNEL method. Gene expression was determined for Bax, Bcl-2, BIP, CHOP, JNK, Caspase-12, Caspase-9, and Caspase-3, and protein expression was detected for Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3. Our results showed that AFB1 induced the oxidative damage and apoptosis in the livers of mice. However, for mice given B. amyloliquefaciens B10, the biochemical indices, pathological changes, the expressions of genes and proteins related to oxidative stress and apoptosis were significantly reversed. The results indicate that B. amyloliquefaciens B10 antagonizes oxidative damage and apoptosis induced by AFB1 in the livers of mice. The results of this study are of significance for the future use of this strain to reduce the harm of AFB1 to human health and animal reproductive performance.
Food & Nutrition Research, Volume 65; doi:10.29219/fnr.v65.5384
Background: Alcoholic liver disease is caused as a result of chronic alcohol consumption. In this study, we used an alcoholic liver injury mouse model to investigate the effect of fucoidan on ethanol-induced liver injury and steatosis and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: All mice were randomly divided into four groups: 1) control group, 2) model group, 3) diammonium glycyrrhizinate treatment group (200 mg/kg body weight), and 4) fucoidan treatment group (300 mg/kg body weight). Administration of ethanol for 8 weeks induced liver injury and steatosis in mice. Results: Fucoidan treatment decreased serum alanine aminotransferase activity, serum total cholesterol levels, and hepatic triglyceride levels, and improved the morphology of hepatic cells. Fucoidan treatment upregulated the expression of AMPKα1, SIRT1, and PGC-1α and inhibited the expression of ChREBP and HNF-1α. The levels of hepatic IL-6 and IL-18 were significantly decreased in the fucoidan group. Further, the levels of cytochrome P450-2E1 (CYP2E1), glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78, and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) in hepatic tissues were reduced in the fucoidan group as compared to the model group. Fucoidan significantly reversed the reduction of ileac Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) levels induced by alcohol- feeding and reduced CYP7A1 (cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase) expression and total bile acid levels in the liver tissue. In addition, fucoidan regulated the structure of gut flora, with increased abundance of Prevotella and decreased abundance of Paraprevotella and Romboutsia as detected by 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing. Conclusion: Fucoidan inhibited alcohol-induced steatosis and disorders of bile acid metabolism in mice through the AMPKα1/SIRT1 pathway and the gut microbiota–bile acid–liver axis and protected against alcohol- induced liver injury in vivo.