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(searched for: doi:10.1016/j.kint.2020.12.013)
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International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Volume 22; doi:10.3390/ijms22116044

Abstract:
SGLT-2i’s exert direct anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects on resting endothelial cells. However, endothelial cells are constantly exposed to mechanical forces such as cyclic stretch. Enhanced stretch increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thereby impairs endothelial barrier function. We hypothesized that the SGLT-2i’s empagliflozin (EMPA), dapagliflozin (DAPA) and canagliflozin (CANA) exert an anti-oxidative effect and alleviate cyclic stretch-induced endothelial permeability in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). HCAECs were pre-incubated with one of the SGLT-2i’s (1 µM EMPA, 1 µM DAPA and 3 µM CANA) for 2 h, followed by 10% stretch for 24 h. HCAECs exposed to 5% stretch were considered as control. Involvement of ROS was measured using N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). The sodium-hydrogen exchanger 1 (NHE1) and NADPH oxidases (NOXs) were inhibited by cariporide, or GKT136901, respectively. Cell permeability and ROS were investigated by fluorescence intensity imaging. Cell permeability and ROS production were increased by 10% stretch; EMPA, DAPA and CANA decreased this effect significantly. Cariporide and GKT136901 inhibited stretch-induced ROS production but neither of them further reduced ROS production when combined with EMPA. SGLT-2i’s improve the barrier dysfunction of HCAECs under enhanced stretch and this effect might be mediated through scavenging of ROS. Anti-oxidative effect of SGLT-2i’s might be partially mediated by inhibition of NHE1 and NOXs.
, Stéphane Burtey
Published: 1 May 2021
Kidney International, Volume 99, pp 1062-1064; doi:10.1016/j.kint.2021.01.008

Abstract:
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors offer cardiovascular and renal benefits in patients with chronic kidney disease through not yet clearly defined mechanisms. Juni et al. showed that sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin exposure in vitro can restore cardiomyocyte function by counteracting harmful effects of uremic serum on the endothelium-cardiomyocyte crosstalk between endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. The author's findings improved our understanding of cardiovascular impairment in chronic kidney disease and provided new perspectives for the beneficial effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor therapy.
Sin-Hee Park, Eugenia Belcastro, Hira Hasan, Kensuke Matsushita, Benjamin Marchandot, Malak Abbas, Florence Toti, Cyril Auger, Laurence Jesel, Patrick Ohlmann, et al.
Cardiovascular Diabetology, Volume 20, pp 1-17; doi:10.1186/s12933-021-01252-3

Abstract:
Background Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduced cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes patients independently of glycemic control. Although angiotensin II (Ang II) and blood-derived microparticles are major mediators of cardiovascular disease, their impact on SGLT1 and 2 expression and function in endothelial cells (ECs) and isolated arteries remains unclear. Methods ECs were isolated from porcine coronary arteries, and arterial segments from rats. The protein expression level was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining, mRNA levels by RT-PCR, oxidative stress using dihydroethidium, nitric oxide using DAF-FM diacetate, senescence by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity, and platelet aggregation by aggregometer. Microparticles were collected from blood of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD-MPs). Results Ang II up-regulated SGLT1 and 2 protein levels in ECs, and caused a sustained extracellular glucose- and Na+-dependent pro-oxidant response that was inhibited by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor VAS-2780, the AT1R antagonist losartan, sotagliflozin (Sota, SGLT1 and SGLT2 inhibitor), and empagliflozin (Empa, SGLT2 inhibitor). Ang II increased senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity and markers, VCAM-1, MCP-1, tissue factor, ACE, and AT1R, and down-regulated eNOS and NO formation, which were inhibited by Sota and Empa. Increased SGLT1 and SGLT2 protein levels were observed in the rat aortic arch, and Ang II- and eNOS inhibitor-treated thoracic aorta segments, and were associated with enhanced levels of oxidative stress and prevented by VAS-2780, losartan, Sota and Empa. CAD-MPs promoted increased levels of SGLT1, SGLT2 and VCAM-1, and decreased eNOS and NO formation in ECs, which were inhibited by VAS-2780, losartan, Sota and Empa. Conclusions Ang II up-regulates SGLT1 and 2 protein expression in ECs and arterial segments to promote sustained oxidative stress, senescence and dysfunction. Such a sequence contributes to CAD-MPs-induced endothelial dysfunction. Since AT1R/NADPH oxidase/SGLT1 and 2 pathways promote endothelial dysfunction, inhibition of SGLT1 and/or 2 appears as an attractive strategy to enhance the protective endothelial function.
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