(searched for: doi:10.3390/molecules25235559)
Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 94; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2022.105122
Nutritional neuroscience pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1080/1028415x.2021.2012629
Background: Obesity results from an unbalance in the ingested and burned calories. Energy balance (EB) is critically regulated by the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) by promoting appetite or anorectic actions. Hypothalamic inflammation, driven by high activation of the microglia, has been reported as a key mechanism involved in the development of diet-induced obesity. Kaempferol (KF), a flavonoid-type polyphenol present in a large number of fruits and vegetables, was shown to regulate both energy metabolism and inflammation. Objectives: In this work, we studied the effects of both the central and peripheral treatment with KF on hypothalamic inflammation and EB regulation in mice with obesity. Methods: Obese adult mice were chronically (40 days) treated with KF (0.5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally). During the treatment, body weight, food intake (FI), feed efficiency (FE), glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity were determined. Analysis of microglia activation in the ARC of the hypothalamus at the end of the treatment was also performed. Body weight, FI, and FE changes were also evaluated in response to 5µg KF, centrally administrated. Results: Chronic administration of KF decreased ∼43% of the density, and ∼30% of the ratio, of activated microglia in the arcuate nucleus. These changes were accompanied by body weight loss, decreased FE, reduced fasting blood glucose, and a tendency to improve insulin sensitivity. Finally, acute central administration of KF reproduced the effects on EB triggered by peripheral administration. Conclusion: These findings suggest that KF might fight obesity by regulating central processes related to EB regulation and hypothalamic inflammation. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT
Pharmaceutics, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13050743
This work aimed to carry out a study of Apodanthera congestiflora by investigating its chemical composition and pharmacological potential. From the dichloromethane phase (Dic-Ac) of the A. congestiflora stems, three compounds were identified: cayaponoside C5b (Ac-1), cabenoside C (Ac-2) and fevicordin C2 glucoside (Ac-3), being last identified for the first time as a natural product. These compounds were obtained by chromatographic methods and their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic analysis of IR, MS and NMR. In the quantification of Dic-Ac, it was possible to observe the presence of 7% of cayaponoside C5b. Dic-Ac showed significant toxicity for in vivo tests, with macroscopic and biochemical changes. The anti-inflammatory activity of Dic-Ac was investigated using the paw edema model. A decrease in inflammatory signs was observed in the first 5 h and the most effective dose in reducing edema with was 7.5 mg kg−1 (66.6%). Anti-tumor activity of Dic-Ac was evaluated by Ehrlich’s carcinoma model, which showed inhibition rate of 78.46% at 15 mg kg−1 dosage. The phytochemical investigation, together with the biological tests carried out in this study, demonstrated that A. congestiflora is a promising species in the search for therapeutics, since it contains substances with high pharmacological potential in its composition.