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(searched for: doi:10.1146/annurev-genet-030620-093031)
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Published: 10 July 2021
by MDPI
Genes, Volume 12; doi:10.3390/genes12071059

Abstract:
Multicellular eukaryotes are characterized by an expanded extracellular matrix (ECM) with a diversified composition. The ECM is involved in determining tissue texture, screening cells from the outside medium, development, and innate immunity, all of which are essential features in the biology of multicellular eukaryotes. This review addresses the origin and evolution of the ECM, with a focus on multicellular marine algae. We show that in these lineages the expansion of extracellular matrix played a major role in the acquisition of complex multicellularity through its capacity to connect, position, shield, and defend the cells. Multiple innovations were necessary during these evolutionary processes, leading to striking convergences in the structures and functions of the ECMs of algae, animals, and plants.
Published: 28 June 2021
Plant Reproduction pp 1-10; doi:10.1007/s00497-021-00417-0

Abstract:
While the process of meiosis is highly conserved across eukaryotes, the sexual systems that govern life cycle phase transitions are surprisingly labile. Switches between sexual systems have profound evolutionary and ecological consequences, in particular for plants, but our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and ultimate causes underlying these transitions is still surprisingly incomplete. We explore here the idea that brown and green algae may be interesting comparative models that can increase our understanding of relevant processes in plant reproductive biology, from evolution of gamete dimorphism, gametogenesis, sex determination and transitions in sex-determining systems.
, Delphine Scornet, Minori Harada, Céline Caillard, Olivier Godfroy, Morgane Raphalen, , , Taizo Motomura, Chikako Nagasato, et al.
Published: 2 June 2021
by 10.1111
New Phytologist; doi:10.1111/nph.17525

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Haiqin Yao, Delphine Scornet, Murielle Jam, Cécile Hervé, , Lydie Oliveira Correia, ,
Published: 11 January 2021
Journal of Phycology, Volume 57, pp 742-753; doi:10.1111/jpy.13126

Abstract:
The haploid‐diploid life cycle of the filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus involves alternation between two independent and morphologically distinct multicellular generations, the sporophyte and the gametophyte. Deployment of the sporophyte developmental program requires two TALE homeodomain transcription factors OUROBOROS and SAMSARA. In addition, the sporophyte generation has been shown to secrete a diffusible factor that can induce uni‐spores to switch from the gametophyte to the sporophyte developmental program. Here, we determine optimal conditions for production, storage and detection of this diffusible factor and show that it is a heat‐resistant, high molecular weight molecule. Based on a combined approach involving proteomic analysis of sporophyte‐conditioned medium and the use of biochemical tools to characterize arabinogalactan proteins, we present evidence that sporophyte‐conditioned medium contains AGP epitopes and suggest that the diffusible factor may belong to this family of glycoproteins.
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