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(searched for: doi:10.1016/j.radcr.2020.07.031)
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R. Bihariesingh-Sanchit, , J. Fröberg, N. Ramdhani, R. Mangroo, D. Bustamente, E. Diaz, I. Thakoer, S. Vreden, Z. Choudhry, et al.
Published: 19 April 2021
Abstract:
Background Although convalescent plasma (CP) treatment is a potential therapeutic option for patients with COVID-19, there is a paucity of data from studies in low-resource settings. The efficacy and safety of CP therapy in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19 in Suriname was evaluated. A novel gravity-based filtration method was used to obtain CP. The design was an open-label, multi-centre, non-randomized prospective clinical trial performed in two hospitals in Suriname, from June 2020, to December 2020. A pre-planned interim analysis is reported in 78 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU with severe or life-threatening symptoms. CP in combination with standard treatment (n = 28) was compared to standard treatment alone (control) (n = 50), stratified by disease severity. The primary endpoint was 28-day ICU mortality. Secondary (exploratory) endpoints were changes two days after treatment initiation in pulmonary oxygen exchange capacity (PF ratio) and chest x-ray (CXR) score. Findings The median age of patients was 52 years with 43 [55.1%] being male. Twenty-eight day mortality occurred in 18% (5/28) of the CP group vs 36% (18/50) of the control group. Survival probability was significantly higher in the CP group compared to the control group with standard care (P=0.027). When stratifying into disease severity, the survival probability was the lowest for the control group with life-threatening disease (P=0.0051). CP treatment of severe COVID-19 resulted in a higher probability of survival, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.22 (95% CI, 0.074-0.067), correcting for age, the presence of diabetes and COVID-19 severity. Age significantly increased the mortality risk (HR, 1.08 [95%CI, 1.022-1.14]; P = 0.006). In the severe group, CP resulted in an improved CXR score (P =0.0013) and increase in PF ratio (P = 0.011) as compared to standard therapy. The gravity-based plasmapheresis method used for CP production was well-tolerated and no adverse events were observed in the donors. Interpretation Among patients with severe or life-threatening COVID-19, CP therapy in combination with standard treatment resulted in 78% reduction of 28-day ICU mortality (HR = 0.22) compared to standard treatment alone. Both CXR-score and PF ratio changes represent indicators of treatment effect of CP after two days and can easily be implemented in low-resource settings. The novel CP production method was effective and represents a practical solution for low- and middle income countries (LMICs) to produce CP locally. Although interpretation is limited by the non-randomized design of the trial, these results offer a potential route for broader implementation of CP treatment in LMICs. Funding This study was funded by the Academic Hospital Paramaribo, without additional third-party funding.
JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.2196/25500

Abstract:
Background The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by a novel coronavirus termed SARS-CoV-2, has spread quickly worldwide. Convalescent plasma (CP) obtained from patients following recovery from COVID-19 infection and development of antibodies against the virus is an attractive option for either prophylactic or therapeutic treatment, since antibodies may have direct or indirect antiviral activities and immunotherapy has proven effective in principle and in many clinical reports. Objective We seek to characterize the latest advances and evidence in the use of CP for COVID-19 through a systematic review and quantitative analysis, identify knowledge gaps in this setting, and offer recommendations and directives for future research. Methods PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase were continuously searched for studies assessing the use of CP for COVID-19, including clinical studies, commentaries, reviews, guidelines or protocols, and in vitro testing of CP antibodies. The screening process and data extraction were performed according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Quality appraisal of all clinical studies was conducted using a universal tool independent of study designs. A meta-analysis of case-control and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted using a random-effects model. Results Substantial literature has been published covering various aspects of CP therapy for COVID-19. Of the references included in this review, a total of 243 eligible studies including 64 clinical studies, 79 commentary articles, 46 reviews, 19 guidance and protocols, and 35 in vitro testing of CP antibodies matched the criteria. Positive results have been mostly observed so far when using CP for the treatment of COVID-19. There were remarkable heterogeneities in the CP therapy with respect to patient demographics, donor antibody titers, and time and dose of CP administration. The studies assessing the safety of CP treatment reported low incidence of adverse events. Most clinical studies, in particular case reports and case series, had poor quality. Only 1 RCT was of high quality. Randomized and nonrandomized data were found in 2 and 11 studies, respectively, and were included for meta-analysis, suggesting that CP could reduce mortality and increase viral clearance. Despite promising pilot studies, the benefits of CP treatment can only be clearly established through carefully designed RCTs. Conclusions There is developing support for CP therapy, particularly for patients who are critically ill or mechanically ventilated and resistant to antivirals and supportive care. These studies provide important lessons that should inform the planning of well-designed RCTs to generate more robust knowledge for the efficacy of CP in patients with COVID-19. Future research is necessary to fill the knowledge gap regarding prevention and treatment for patients with COVID-19 with CP while other therapeutics are being developed.
Ying Wang, Pengfei Huo, Rulin Dai, Xin Lv, Shaofei Yuan, Yang Zhang, Yiming Guo, Rui Li, ,
Published: 5 December 2020
International Immunopharmacology, Volume 91, pp 107262-107262; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107262

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