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(searched for: doi:10.1007/s11663-020-01938-1)
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Yeguang Wang, Chengjun Liu
Published: 15 September 2022
ISIJ International, Volume 62, pp 1852-1861; https://doi.org/10.2355/isijinternational.isijint-2022-104

Abstract:
To investigate the effect of Ce and Mg addition on the evolution of inclusions in Al-killed molten steel, both thermodynamic calculations and laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in the present work. The samples taken at different time after various addition amounts and order of Ce and Mg were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results show that Al2O3 was firstly modified to MgAl2O4 and then the transformation from MgAl2O4 to CeAlO3 with the addition order of Al → Mg → Ce. Under the addition order of first Ce followed by Mg, CeAlO3 was eventually modified to MgAl2O4 in the case of low Mg contents, and was modified to MgO with high Mg contents. The thermodynamic conditions were performed to discuss the mechanism of inclusions formation and transformation. More importantly, under the condition of Ce addition followed by Mg addition, due to the transformation from large-sized RE-inclusions to disperse MgO-containing ones, the average sizes of inclusions reduced from 3.12 µm and 3.28 µm to 1.99 µm and 1.83 µm, respectively. This evolution behavior of inclusions was firstly observed in-situ by a novel experiment, in which the large-sized CeAlO3 clusters were disaggregated to MgO–Al2O3 particles with smaller sizes. The control strategy of inclusions proposed in this study is expected to improve the casting process and the product quality of Al-killed steel containing rare earth element.
Xiang Zheng, Jie Qi, Yihao Zheng, Chengjun Liu
Published: 1 August 2022
Journal of Solid State Chemistry, Volume 312; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jssc.2022.123220

Dong-Hyun Kim, Jea-Bok Choi, Hae-Mi Hong, Yong-Min Cho, Young-Joon Park, Min-Ho Song,
Published: 21 May 2022
Metals and Materials International, Volume 28, pp 3106-3119; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12540-022-01190-z

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Xiaokang Cui, , Jinghong Mao
Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, Volume 75, pp 2221-2230; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12666-022-02573-x

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Hong Liu, Weifu Li, Changyu Ren, ,
Published: 6 March 2022
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Volume 53, pp 1323-1328; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11663-022-02472-y

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Jun Wang, , Junqi Li, Chaoyi Chen, Shufeng Yang, Xiang Li
Published: 22 February 2022
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 906; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2022.164281

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Yuexin Zhang, , Xiaomin Kang, Julei Gao, Lifeng Zhang
Published: 4 January 2022
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Volume 53, pp 637-649; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11663-021-02410-4

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Bin Li, , Jixuan Zhao, Mingming Song, Jianli Li, Zhengliang Xue
Published: 23 September 2021
Steel Research International, Volume 93; https://doi.org/10.1002/srin.202100347

Published: 13 September 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Materials
Materials, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14185262

Abstract:
The effects of Cerium (Ce) were studied on the casting slab quality, microstructure, and inclusion evolution of cryogenic vessel steel. An optical metallographic microscope, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectrometer, and Thermo-calc thermodynamic software were used for characterization and analysis. The results indicated that the central segregation was significantly improved after adding Ce and reached the lowest level when the content of Ce was 0.0009 wt.%. Meanwhile, the presence of Ce reduces the size of ferrite and improves pearlite morphology. Ce also enables the modification of Al2O3 and MnS + Ti4C2S2 inclusions into ellipsoid CeAlO3 and spherical Ce2O2S + Ti4C2S2 composite inclusions, respectively, which are easier to remove. The formed Ce2O2S inclusions are fine and can work as heterogeneous nucleation points to refine the microstructure of steel.
DaoHua Bao, Guoguang Cheng, Yu Huang, Tong Qiao, Weixing Dai
Published: 31 August 2021
steel research international, Volume 93; https://doi.org/10.1002/srin.202100304

Wei Liang, , Bin Lu, Jian-Guo Zhi, Shuai Zhang, Yang Liu
Journal of Iron and Steel Research International, Volume 29, pp 34-43; https://doi.org/10.1007/s42243-021-00637-8

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, Lin Zhang, Lifeng Zhang, Qiang Ren, Xuanhui Qu
Published: 29 July 2021
Metallurgical Research & Technology, Volume 118; https://doi.org/10.1051/metal/2021057

Abstract:
Rare earth metal transfer from slag to alloy and inclusion was investigated by slag-metal reaction method. Rare earth oxide (CeO2) employed in the refining slags was used a sample case. The results show that direct application of rare earth oxide in the slag is an alternative to traditional way which uses pure rare earth metal or rare-earth ferrous alloy to add rare earth in an alloy. Slag-metal reaction method proves to be an effective way to improve the rare earth transfer from slags to alloys with high content of Al. The content of Ce in the alloy increased with the increasing CeO2/Al2O3 mass ratio of the slag. As the Ce concentration of molten alloy increased from 0 to 105 ppm, the Al2O3 type inclusion was changed into cerium oxide, cerium sulfide and cerium oxy-sulfide inclusions. In addition, the morphology of inclusions was transformed from irregular to near spherical. Finally, the mechanism was discussed by thermodynamic analysis.
Yeguang Wang, Chengjun Liu
Published: 15 May 2021
ISIJ International, Volume 61, pp 1396-1403; https://doi.org/10.2355/isijinternational.isijint-2020-684

Abstract:
Comprehensive investigation of agglomeration behavior of oxide inclusions in steel-containing rare earth (RE) under different deoxidation conditions is essential for improving the nozzle-clogging problem during continuous casting. The present study first optimized the thermodynamic model by supplementing thermodynamic data of the RE-compound to study the formation of various inclusions in the Ce–Si–Al–O system. On this basis, laboratory-scale experiments with different deoxidation conditions were designed to obtain samples containing one single type of inclusions, viz., SiO2, SiO2–Ce2O3 or SiO2–Al2O3–Ce2O3, respectively. Subsequently, the agglomeration behavior of inclusions was observed in situ by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and the corresponding attractive forces were calculated to compare the agglomeration tendency of various inclusions. The results indicate that, in the Si deoxidized samples, SiO2–Ce2O3 inclusions agglomerate to form clusters with the attractive force of 4.3 × 10−17N to 4.2 × 10−15N, which is weaker than that of Al2O3 and Al2O3–Ce2O3 inclusions after Al deoxidation. Although SiO2 inclusions can agglomerate, their attractive force is only 6.3 × 10−19N to 1.2 × 10−16N, which is the weakest of the above inclusions. In the case of Si/Al complex deoxidization, spherical SiO2–Al2O3–Ce2O3 liquid inclusions are formed after Ce treatment, and no agglomeration of such inclusions was observed in situ. The study could provide theoretical guidance for improving the nozzle-clogging problem of RE-containing steel from inclusion-controlling perspective under different deoxidation conditions.
Xiaokang Cui, , Jinghong Mao
Published: 19 March 2021
Metallurgical Research & Technology, Volume 118; https://doi.org/10.1051/metal/2021018

Abstract:
The size distribution and composition of inclusions in Mg-RE-Ti treated steels with different Al contents were investigated systematically, while the microstructure and the nucleation potency of inclusions for AF were analyzed. The results show that the inclusions were refined with Mg treatment, and then coarsen following La addition in the samples. The particles in high Al sample were more likely to collide, aggregate and form clusters due to the relatively high amount of inclusions in melt steel. The dominate inclusions were composed of two layer structures with Mg-bearing inclusions cores and La-bearing inclusions shells. With the increase of Al content, the cores evolved from MgO to MgO•Al2O3 and the shells evolved from La2O2S and La2O3 to LaAlO3. The nucleation potency of inclusions for AF decreased due to relatively high lattice misfit between inclusions and α-Fe in high Al sample. The AF fraction decreased with the increase of Al content because of the decrease of the amount of effective inclusions.
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