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(searched for: doi:10.1016/j.jamda.2020.04.033)
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, Piret Paal, Christiane Weck, Shazia Jamshed,
Published: 12 April 2022
Frontiers in Pharmacology, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.759998

Abstract:
Background and objectives: Highly widespread use of pro re nata (PRN) medicines in various healthcare settings is a potential area for improper medication prescription and administration leading to patient harm. This study aimed to summarize and integrate the findings of all relevant individual studies regarding the practical considerations of PRN medicines management including strategies and interventions by healthcare professionals for safe prescription, dispensing, administration, monitoring, and deprescription of PRN medicines in healthcare settings.Methods: An integrative systematic review on international databases were performed. Electronic databases including Web of Knowledge, Scopus, PubMed (including MEDLINE), and Cinahl were searched to retrieve articles published until end of May 2021. Original qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods studies written in English were included with a focus on PRN medicines management in healthcare settings. Research synthesis using the narrative method was performed to summarise the results of included studies.Results: Thirty-one studies on PRN medicines in healthcare settings by different healthcare providers were included after the screening of the databases based on eligibility criteria. They were published from 1987 to 2021. The majority of studies were from Australia, the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom and were conducted in psychiatric settings. Given variations in their purposes, methods, and outcomes, the research synthesis was conducted narratively based on diversities and similarities in findings. Eight categories were developed by the authors as follows: “PRN indications and precautionary measures,” “requirements of PRN prescription,” “interventions for PRN administration,” “monitoring and follow up interventions,” “deprescription strategies,” “healthcare professionals’ role,” “participation of patients and families,” and “multidisciplinary collaboration.” Each category consists of several items and describes what factors should be considered by healthcare professionals for PRN medicines management.Conclusion: The review findings provide insights on the practical considerations of PRN medicines management in clinical practice. The suggested list of considerations in our review can be used by healthcare professionals for optimal PRN medicines management and safeguarding patient care.
Laura A. Dowd, Lorenna Reynolds, , Felicity Veal, Michelle Steeper, Zainab Wanas, Nancy Wu, J. Simon Bell
Published: 8 April 2022
Australasian journal on ageing; https://doi.org/10.1111/ajag.13071

Dirk O.C. Rijksen, Sytse U. Zuidema, Esther C. de Haas
Published: 9 December 2021
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Reports, Volume 5, pp 871-879; https://doi.org/10.3233/adr-210041

Abstract:
Background: Guidelines worldwide recommend restricted prescription of benzodiazepine receptor agonists (BZRAs), i.e., benzodiazepines and Z-drugs, for the treatment of dementia-associated behavioral and psychological symptoms and insomnia. Objective: To assess the prevalence and appropriateness of BZRA use among nursing home residents with dementia. Methods: This is a post-hoc analysis of BZRA prescriptions from two intervention studies on psychotropic drug use, conducted from 2016 to 2018. It includes 1,111 residents of dementia special care units from 24 Dutch long-term care organizations. We assessed the prevalence of use of continuous and as-needed BZRA prescriptions and their association with registered symptoms. Continuous BZRA prescriptions were evaluated for appropriateness, i.e., whether indication, dosage, duration, and evaluation accorded with guidelines for the treatment of challenging behavior in dementia and sleep disorders. Results: The prevalence of BZRA use is 39.2% (95% CI: 36.3%–42.0%): continuous 22.9%; only as-needed 16.3%. Combinations of preferred BZRAs and appropriate indications occur in 19.0% of continuous anxiolytic prescriptions and 44.8% of hypnotic prescriptions. Frequently registered inappropriate indications are aggression/agitation for anxiolytics (continuous: 75.7%; as-needed: 75.2%) and nighttime agitation for hypnotics (continuous: 40.3%; as-needed: 26.7%). None of the continuous prescriptions with appropriate indications were appropriate for all other items. For most of the prescriptions, duration and time to evaluation exceeded 4 weeks. Conclusion: BZRA use in nursing home residents with dementia is highly frequent. A large proportion of prescriptions do not follow the guidelines with regard to indication, exceed the recommended duration and are not evaluated in a timely manner. The discrepancy between evidence-based guidelines and daily practice calls for an exploration of factors maintaining inappropriate use.
, Shazia Jamshed, Stefan Lorenzl,
Published: 1 July 2021
Risk management and healthcare policy, pp 2841-2849; https://doi.org/10.2147/rmhp.s316744

Abstract:
Older people with long-term mental health conditions who receive care in their own home are vulnerable to the inappropriate use of medications and polypharmacy given their underlying health conditions and comorbidities. Inappropriate use of pro re nata (PRN) medications in these older people can enhance their suffering and have negative consequences for their quality of life and well-being, leading to readmission to healthcare settings and the increased cost of health care. This narrative review on published international literature aims at improving our understanding of medicines management in home care and how to improve PRN medication use among older people with long-term health conditions in their own home. Accordingly, the improvement of PRN medicines management for these older people requires the development of an individualised care plan considering 'reduction of older people's dependence on PRN medications', 'empowerment of family caregivers', and 'support by healthcare professionals.' PRN medication use should be reduced through deprescription and discontinuation strategies. Also, older people and their family caregivers should be encouraged to prioritize the use of non-pharmacologic methods to relieve physical and psychological problems. Besides the empowerment of family caregivers through role development, education and training about PRN medications, and involvement in decision-making, they need support by the multidisciplinary network in terms of supervision, monitoring, and home visits.
, Nicole J. Brandt, Antonio Cherubini, T.S. Dharmarajan, David Dosa, Joseph T. Hanlon, Paul Katz, Raymond T.C.M. Koopmans, Rosemary D. Laird, Mirko Petrovic, et al.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, Volume 22, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.11.027

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 26 October 2020
by MDPI
Journal: Pharmacy
Abstract:
Medicines management is a high-risk and error prone process in healthcare settings, where nurses play an important role to preserve patient safety. In order to create a safe healthcare environment, nurses should recognize challenges that they face in this process, understand factors leading to medication errors, identify errors and systematically address them to prevent their future occurrence. ‘’Pro re nata’’ (PRN, as needed) medicine administration is a relatively neglected area of medicines management in nursing practice, yet has a high potential for medication errors. Currently, the international literature indicates a lack of knowledge of both the competencies required for PRN medicines management and the optimum educational strategies to prepare students for PRN medicines management. To address this deficiency in the literature, the authors have presented a discussion on nurses’ roles in medication safety and the significance and purpose of PRN medications, and suggest a model for preparing nursing students in safe PRN medicines management. The discussion takes into account patient participation and nurse competencies required to safeguard PRN medication practice, providing a background for further research on how to improve the safety of PRN medicines management in clinical practice.
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