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(searched for: doi:10.14202/vetworld.2020.1251-1261)
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Published: 7 September 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Molecules
Abstract:
Bee products are known for their beneficial properties widely used in complementary medicine. This study aims to unveil the physicochemical, nutritional value, and phenolic profile of bee pollen and honey collected from Boulemane–Morocco, and to evaluate their antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activity. The results indicate that Citrus aurantium pollen grains were the majority pollen in both samples. Bee pollen was richer in proteins than honey while the inverse was observed for carbohydrate content. Potassium and calcium were the predominant minerals in the studied samples. Seven similar phenolic compounds were found in honey and bee pollen. Three phenolic compounds were identified only in honey (catechin, caffeic acid, vanillic acid) and six phenolic compounds were identified only in bee pollen (hesperidin, cinnamic acid, apigenin, rutin, chlorogenic acid, kaempferol). Naringin is the predominant phenolic in honey while hesperidin is predominant in bee pollen. The results of bioactivities revealed that bee pollen exhibited stronger antioxidant activity and effective α-amylase and α-glycosidase inhibitory action. These bee products show interesting nutritional and bioactive capabilities due to their chemical constituents. These features may allow these bee products to be used in food formulation, as functional and bioactive ingredients, as well as the potential for the nutraceutical sector.
Hatice Ahu Kahraman, Hidayet Tutun, Muhammet Mükerrem Kaya, Melike Sultan Usluer, Soner Tutun, Ceren Yaman, Sedat Sevin, Erhan Keyvan
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment, Volume 36, pp 44-55; https://doi.org/10.1080/13102818.2022.2045217

Abstract:
Bee pollen and propolis are considered as health-promoting foods with many therapeutic (antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant) activities. This study analyzed the phenolic profile and the antioxidant properties of Turkish bee pollen and propolis ethanolic extracts and assayed their antiproliferative effect on myeloma cells and in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibacterial activity assays included agar well diffusion and microdilution methods. The phenolic profile and several aromatic compounds of the extracts were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD). The antiproliferative activity on myeloma cells was determined by MTT test. The propolis extract had higher total phenolic content (TPC), free-radical scavenging activity (DPPH) and half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) than the pollen ethanolic extract. Benzoic and cinnamic acid were the most abundant aromatic substances in the pollen and propolis extracts, respectively. The IC50 values of pollen and propolis extracts on myeloma cells were 1.49% and 2.88%, respectively. The propolis extract was active against S. aureus and E. coli, but not P. aeruginosa. The pollen extract presented no detectable inhibition zone against the three bacterial strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of both extracts for S. aureus and E. coli was 0.63% (w/v). The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the propolis extract was 1.25% for S. aureus and E. coli. MIC could not be determined for the pollen extract in the tested bacteria. The pollen and propolis extracts did not exert antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa up to 2.5% concentration.
Published: 12 July 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Antioxidants
Antioxidants, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10071113

Abstract:
This paper presents the findings of a comprehensive review on common bee pollen processing methods which can impact extraction efficiency and lead to differences in measured total phenolic content (TPC) and radical scavenging activity based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) data. This hampers the comparative analysis of bee pollen from different floral sources and geographical locations. Based on the review, an in-depth investigation was carried out to identify the most efficient process to maximise the extraction of components for measurement of TPC, DPPH and FRAP antioxidant activity for two bee pollen samples from western Australia (Jarrah and Marri pollen). Optimisation by Design of Experiment with Multilevel Factorial Analysis (Categorical) modelling was performed. The independent variables included pollen pulverisation, the extraction solvent (70% aqueous ethanol, ethanol, methanol and water) and the extraction process (agitation, maceration, reflux and sonication). The data demonstrate that non-pulverised bee pollen extracted with 70% aqueous ethanol using the agitation extraction method constitute the optimal conditions to maximise the extraction of phenolics and antioxidant principles in these bee pollen samples.
Published: 23 April 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Antioxidants
Antioxidants, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10050651

Abstract:
Bee pollen and bee bread have always been regarded as excellent natural resources for application in food and pharmaceutical fields due to their rich nutrient content and diversity of bioactive compounds with health-improving properties. Extensive studies on both bee products as ingredients for a healthy diet were reported, although the data concerning their metabolization on the gastrointestinal tract is quite limited. Here, we report, at each digestive stage, the bioactive profile for both bee products, their bioaccessibility levels and the antioxidant activity evaluation. The findings indicated that the average bioaccessibility level of total phenolic and total flavonoid content for bee pollen was 31% and 25%, respectively, while it was 38% and 35% for bee bread. This was reflected in a decrease of their antioxidant capacity at the end of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, both in free radicals scavenging capacity and in reducing power. Moreover, within the 35 phytochemicals identified, the most affected by gastrointestinal digestion were phenylamides, with a complete digestibility at the end of the intestinal phase. Overall, our results highlight that bioactive compounds in both raw products do not reflect the real amount absorbed in the intestine, being bee bread more accessible in bioactive content than bee pollen.
, , Driss Ousaaid, Abderrazak Aboulghazi, , , José Antonio Teixeira,
Published: 15 October 2020
Food Research International, Volume 138; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109802

Abstract:
The present study was designed to investigate the preventive effect of propolis, bee pollen and their combination on Type 2 diabetes induced by D-glucose in rats. The study was carried out by feeding daily two concentrations (100 and 200 mg/Kg BW) of propolis or bee pollen (or their combination to normal (non-diabetic) and diabetic rats for a period of 16 weeks. In vivo biochemical changes associated to diabetes are induced by drinking a solution containing 10% of D-glucose (diabetic rats). The in vitro antioxidant activity was also evaluated and the chemical composition of propolis and bee pollen extracts was determined by UHPLC-DAD. Phytochemical composition of propolis and bee pollen revealed the presence of several natural antioxidants, such as hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, flavonoids, flavan-3-ols and stilbens. The major antioxidant compound present in propolis was Naringin (290.19 ± 0.2 mg/Kg) and in bee pollen was apigenin (162.85 ± 17.7 mg/Kg). These results have been related with a high antioxidant activity, more intense in propolis extract. In rats, the administration of D-glucose had induced hyperglycemia (13.2 ± 0.82 mmol/L), increased plasmatic insulin levels (25.10 ± 2.12 U/L) and HOMA-IR index (14.72 ± 0.85) accompanied with dyslipidemia, elevation of hepatic enzyme levels, and a change in both serum renal biomarkers and plasmatic calcium. The co-administration of propolis and bee pollen extracts alone or in combination restored these biochemical parameters and attenuated the deleterious effects of D-glucose on liver and kidney functions. Furthermore, these effects were better attenuated in the combined therapy-prevented diabetic rats. Hence, it is possible to conclude that propolis and bee pollen can be used as a preventive natural product against diabetes induced dyslipidemia and hepato-renal damage.
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