(searched for: doi:10.3390/ijms21145094)
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Volume 22; doi:10.3390/ijms22073344
The physiological response to a psychological stressor broadly impacts energy metabolism. Inversely, changes in energy availability affect the physiological response to the stressor in terms of hypothalamus, pituitary adrenal axis (HPA), and sympathetic nervous system activation. Glucocorticoids, the endpoint of the HPA axis, are critical checkpoints in endocrine control of energy homeostasis and have been linked to metabolic diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Glucocorticoids, through the glucocorticoid receptor, activate transcription of genes associated with glucose and lipid regulatory pathways and thereby control both physiological and pathophysiological systemic energy homeostasis. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of glucocorticoid functions in energy metabolism and systemic metabolic dysfunction, particularly focusing on glucose and lipid metabolism. There are elements in the external environment that induce lifelong changes in the HPA axis stress response and glucocorticoid levels, and the most prominent are early life adversity, or exposure to traumatic stress. We hypothesise that when the HPA axis is so disturbed after early life adversity, it will fundamentally alter hepatic gluconeogenesis, inducing hyperglycaemia, and hence crystalise the significant lifelong risk of developing either the metabolic syndrome, or type 2 diabetes. This gives a “Jekyll and Hyde” role to gluconeogenesis, providing the necessary energy in situations of acute stress, but driving towards pathophysiological consequences when the HPA axis has been altered.
Published: 19 March 2021
Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, Volume 8, pp 1-12; doi:10.1057/s41599-021-00749-2
Year 2020 will mark History, with the emergence of the new Covid-19 virus, and more importantly, the consequent political decisions to apply freedom restriction at such a large-scale. Identifying the human behaviours during this extraordinary period represents a unique opportunity to both improve our fundamental knowledge and to improve future management of similar issues. Throughout almost all the duration of the French lockdown (from March 24, 2020 to May 10, 2020), we carried out an online survey on more than 12,000 individuals well distributed over the country. This online survey was performed by using both LimeSurvey and Google Forms services and was addressed to adults living in France. Statistical analyses combined classical inferential approach, mapping, clustering and text mining. The results showed that a significant part of the population moved out just before the lockdown (around 10% of our sample) and we highlighted three different profiles of participants. The results emphasised that the lockdown measures compliance was lower in two cases: (i) an unfavourable living environment (referring to social and economic inequity) associated with a high feeling of fear and a lack of trust towards Governmental measures; or (ii) the feeling that the risk was low due to the fact that others complied with the measures. In case a similar situation should occur again, it is recommended that Governments broadcast clear speeches to improve trust, limit fear and increase cooperative behaviours.
Social Science & Medicine, Volume 268, pp 113554-113554; doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113554
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Published: 1 January 2021
by Elsevier BV
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, Volume 15, pp 343-350; doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2021.01.005
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Published: 23 December 2020
ObjectiveGreater COVID-19 related mortality has been reported among persons with various non-communicable diseases (NCDs). We performed an ecological study to determine the association of state-level cases and deaths with NCD risk factors and healthcare and social indices.MethodsWe obtained cumulative national and state-level data on COVID-19 cases and deaths from publicly available database www.covid19india.org from February to end November 2020. To identify association with major NCD risk factors, NCDs, healthcare related and social variables we obtained data from public sources. Association was determined using univariate and multivariate statistics.ResultsMore than 9.5 million COVID-19 cases and 135,000 deaths have been reported in India at end November 2020. There is significant positive correlation (Pearson’s r) of state-level COVID-19 cases and deaths per million, respectively, with NCD risk factors- obesity (0.64, 0.52), hypertension (0.28, 0.16), diabetes (0.66, 0.46), literacy, NCD epidemiological transition index (0.58, 0.54) and ischemic heart disease mortality (0.22, 0.33). Correlation is also observed with indices of healthcare access and quality (0.71, 0.61), urbanization (0.75, 0.73) and human (0.61, 0.56) and sociodemographic (0.70, 0.69) development. Multivariate adjusted analyses shows strong correlation of COVID-19 burden and deaths with NCD risk factors (r2=0.51, 0.43), NCDs (r2=0.32, 0.16) and healthcare related factors (r2=0.52, 0.38).ConclusionsCOVID-19 disease burden and mortality in India is ecologically associated with greater state-level burden of NCDs and risk factors, especially obesity and diabetes.KEY MESSAGESThere is significant state-level variability in COVID-19 cases and deaths in India.In a macrolevel statistical analysis we find that Indian states with better human and sociodemographic indices, more literacy, longer age, greater burden of non-communicable diseases and risk factors have greater COVID-19 case burden and mortality.Non-communicable disease risk factors- obesity and diabetes are the most important determinants on multivariate analyses.
Published: 14 August 2020
Socioeconomic achievement of WASH (access to safe water, sanitation and hygiene) services are being acknowledged as anticipatory actors, indispensable in safeguarding health during this Covid-19 pandemic. However, on a global scale, it is currently not clear whether deprivation or non-obtainability of which of the various WASH services are closely related to Covid-19 dynamics and up to which degree. We have analysed data (March - June 2020) related to five Covid-19 indicators for most of the countries in the world with indicators of safe water, sanitation and hygiene to understand this. We have found a strong positive correlation between lesser effects of Covid-19 and better access to safe water, sanitation as well as hygiene throughout this time for most of the indicators. However, some indicators show the opposite nature of the relationship, for which we have given probable explanation accordingly. The hypothesis of an inversely proportional association between Covid-19 and poor WASH facilities on a global scale is confirmed in this study. We propose that this study should be perceived as an expanded comprehensive view on the complexities of WaSH-Covid19 interrelationships, which could help to shape an agenda for research into some unanswered questions. Highlights WASH indicators are highly correlated to cumulative indicators of Covid-19. Trends of this correlation have been changing from March-June, 2020. Income groups and geographic locations have no distinguishing effects on countries. Better WASH performance does not always correlate against Covid-19.