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(searched for: doi:10.1186/s40545-020-00236-0)
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Federica Galimberti, Elena Olmastroni, , Ivan Merlo, Matteo Franchi, Alberico Luigi Catapano, Valentina Orlando, Enrica Menditto, Elena Tragni, on behalf of EDU.RE.DRUG Group
Published: 25 April 2022
Frontiers in Pharmacology, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.832169

Abstract:
Background: EDU.RE.DRUG study is a prospective, multicentre, open-label, parallel-arm, controlled, pragmatic trial directed to general practitioners (GPs) and their patients.Methods: The study data were retrieved from health-related administrative databases of four local health units (LHUs) of Lombardy and four LHUs in Campania. According to the LHUs, the GPs/patients were assigned to (A) intervention on both GPs (feedback reports about appropriate prescribing among their patients and online courses) and patients (flyers and posters on proper drug use), (B) intervention on GPs, (C) intervention on patients, and (D) no intervention (control arm). A set of appropriate prescribing indicators (potential drug–drug interactions [pDDIs], potential and unnecessary therapeutic duplicates [pTDs], and inappropriate prescriptions in the elderly [ERD-list]) were measured at baseline and after the intervention phase. The effectiveness of the intervention was evaluated estimating the absolute difference in percentages of selected indicators carrying out linear random-intercept mixed-effect models.Results: A cohort of 3,586 GPs (2,567 in intervention groups and 1,019 in the control group) was evaluated. In Campania, the mean pre-intervention percentage of patients with at least one pDDI was always greater than 20% and always lower than 15% in Lombardy. The pre–post difference was quite heterogeneous among the LHUs, ranging from 1.9 to −1.4 percentage points. The mean pre-intervention percentage of patients with pTDs ranged from 0.59 to 2.1%, with slightly higher values characterizing Campania LHUs. The magnitude of the pre–post difference was very low, ranging from −0.11 to 0.20. In Campania, the mean pre-intervention percentage of patients with at least one ERD criterium was considerably higher than in Lombardy (approximately 30% in Lombardy and 50% in Campania). The pre–post difference was again quite heterogeneous. The results from the models accounting for GP geographical belonging suggested that none of the interventions resulted in a statistically significant effect, for all the three indicators considered.Conclusion: The proposed strategy was shown to be not effective in influencing the voluntary changes in GP prescription performance. However, the use of a set of explicit indicators proved to be useful in quantifying the inappropriateness. Further efforts are needed to find more efficient strategies and design more tailored interventions.
F. I. Belyalov
Clinical Medicine (Russian Journal), Volume 99; https://doi.org/10.30629/0023-2149-2021-99-11-12-602-607

Abstract:
The article discusses the application of software and information technologies that form a comfortable environment for the work of a physician. Due to the great complexity and insuffi cient knowledge of diseases, a large amount of constantly updating knowledge, as well as often limited resources, it is extremely important to provide help in making decisions with the use of modern computer technologies. Decision Support Systems make it possible to improve the diagnostics and the approach to treatment, to reduce the frequency of errors and non-optimal decisions, and also to help in individualization of therapeutic programs. It is most eff ective to use DSS implemented in the form of programs for mobile devices that allow using tools anywhere and anytime.
, Ana I. Plácido, Ramona Mateos-Campos, Adolfo Figueiras, ,
Published: 24 January 2022
Frontiers in Pharmacology, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.777655

Abstract:
Background: Age-related multiple comorbidities cause older adults to be prone to the use of potentially inappropriate medicines (PIM) resulting in an increased risk of adverse events. Several strategies have emerged to support PIM prescription, and a huge number of interventions to reduce PIM have been proposed. This work aims to analyze the effectiveness of PIM interventions directed to older adults.Methods: A systematic review was performed searching the literature in the MEDLINE PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane scientific databases for interventional studies that assessed the PIM interventions in older adults (≥65 years).Results: Forty-seven articles were included, involving 52 to 124,802 patients. Various types of interventions were analyzed such as medication review, educational strategies, clinical decision support system, and organizational and multifaceted approaches. In the hospital, the most successful intervention was medication review (75.0%), while in primary care, the analysis of all included studies revealed that educational strategies were the most effective. However, the analysis of interventions that have greater evidence by its design was inconclusive.Conclusion: The results obtained in this work suggested that PIM-setting-directed interventions should be developed to promote the wellbeing of the patients through PIM reduction. Although the data obtained suggested that medication review was the most assertive strategy to decrease the number of PIM in the hospital setting, more studies are necessary.Systematic Review Registration: [https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42021233484], identifier [PROSPERO 2021 CRD42021233484].
Published: 25 February 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Pharmaceuticals
Pharmaceuticals, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14030187

Abstract:
Drug-related problems (DRPs) in the elderly include polypharmacy, potentially inappropriate medications, nonadherence, and drug-related falls. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the prevalence of DRPs and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among the Malaysian elderly was estimated. PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify studies published since their inception up to 24 August 2020. A random-effects model was used to generate the pooled prevalence of DRPs along with its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). The heterogeneity of the results was estimated using the I2 statistics, and Cochran’s Q test and sensitivity analyses were performed to confirm the robustness of the results. We identified 526 studies, 23 of which were included in the meta-analysis. (n = 29,342). The pooled prevalence of DRPs among Malaysian elderly was as follows: (1) polypharmacy: 49.5% [95% CI: 20.5–78.6], (2) potentially inappropriate medications: 28.9% [95% CI: 25.4–32.3], (3) nonadherence to medications: 60.6% [95% CI: 50.2–70.9], and (4) medication-related falls 39.3% [95% CI: 0.0–80.8]. Approximately one in two Malaysian elderly used CAM. The prevalence of polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate medications among the Malaysian elderly population was high, calling for measures and evidence-based guidelines to ensure the safe medication use.
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