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(searched for: doi:10.1094/pdis-10-19-2110-pdn)
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James A. Price, Danny Coyne, Vivian C. Blok,
Published: 11 March 2021
Molecular Plant Pathology, Volume 22, pp 495-507; https://doi.org/10.1111/mpp.13047

Abstract:
Taxonomy Phylum Nematoda; class Chromadorea; order Rhabditida; suborder Tylenchina; infraorder Tylenchomorpha; superfamily Tylenchoidea; family Heteroderidae; subfamily Heteroderinae; Genus Globodera. Biology Potato cyst nematodes (PCN) are biotrophic, sedentary endoparasitic nematodes. Invasive (second) stage juveniles (J2) hatch from eggs in response to the presence of host root exudates and subsequently locate and invade the host. The nematodes induce the formation of a large, multinucleate syncytium in host roots, formed by fusion of up to 300 root cell protoplasts. The nematodes rely on this single syncytium for the nutrients required to develop through a further three moults to the adult male or female stage. This extended period of biotrophy—between 4 and 6 weeks in total—is almost unparalleled in plant–pathogen interactions. Females remain at the root while adult males revert to the vermiform body plan of the J2 and leave the root to locate and fertilize the female nematodes. The female body forms a cyst that contains the next generation of eggs. Host range The host range of PCN is limited to plants of the Solanaceae family. While the most economically important hosts are potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and aubergine (Solanum melongena), over 170 species of Solanaceae are thought to be potential hosts for PCN (Sullivan et al., 2007). Disease symptoms Symptoms are similar to those associated with nutrient deficiency, such as stunted growth, yellowing of leaves and reduced yields. This absence of specific symptoms reduces awareness of the disease among growers. Disease control Resistance genes (where available in suitable cultivars), application of nematicides, crop rotation. Great effort is put into reducing the spread of PCN through quarantine measures and use of certified seed stocks. Useful websites Genomic information for PCN is accessible through WormBase ParaSite.
Juliet Ochola, Laura Cortada, Margaret Ng’Ang’A, Ahmed Hassanali, Danny Coyne,
Frontiers in Plant Science, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00649

Abstract:
Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a widely consumed staple food crop worldwide whose production is threatened by potato cyst nematodes (PCN). To infect a host, PCN eggs first need to be stimulated to hatch by chemical components in the host root exudates, yet it remains unknown how most root exudate components influence PCN behavior. Here, we evaluated the influence of eight compounds identified by LC-QqQ-MS in the root exudate of potato on the hatching response of the PCN, Globodera rostochiensis at varying doses. The eight compounds included the amino acids tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine; phytohormones zeatin and methyl dihydrojasmonate; steroidal glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine and the steroidal alkaloid solanidine. We additionally tested two other Solanaceae steroidal alkaloids, solasodine and tomatidine, previously identified in the root exudates of tomato, an alternative host for PCN. In dose-response assays with the individual compounds, the known PCN hatching factors α-chaconine and α-solanine stimulated the highest number of eggs to hatch, ∼47 and ∼42%, respectively, whereas the steroidal alkaloids (aglycones), solanidine and solasodine and potato root exudate (PRE) were intermediate, 28% each and 21%, respectively, with tomatidine eliciting the lowest hatching response 13%. However, ∼60% of the hatched juveniles failed to emerge from the cyst, which was compound- and concentration-dependent. The amino acids, phytohormones and the negative control (1% DMSO in water), however, were generally non-stimulatory. The use of steroidal glycoalkaloids and their aglycones in the suicidal hatching of PCN offers promise as an environmentally sustainable approach to manage this pest.
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