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Published: 27 December 2021
Journal of General Management, Volume 47, pp 111-125; https://doi.org/10.1177/03063070211023448

Abstract:
Research has focused on the ecosystems of forces that influence how organizations pursue opportunities in new industries, nascent markets, and novel technologies. However, there is an emerging, but unstudied, ecosystem supporting entrepreneurial activities in legacy industries, mature markets, and based on (seemingly) obsolete technologies—the analog entrepreneurial ecosystem (AEE). To develop a framework to explain this phenomenon and guide entrepreneurs and managers operating in this ecosystem, a theory of the AEE is proposed. The theory explains the ecosystem’s main components and delineates the forces driving its emergence. The model contributes to research on ecosystems, technology reemergence, and management in mature markets and has implications for organizations pursuing opportunities outside the digital ecosystem and based on legacy products.
, Indre Maurer, Mark Ebers
Published: 30 November 2021
Journal of Management Studies; https://doi.org/10.1111/joms.12789

Abstract:
Dynamic capabilities research is hampered by a theoretical divide. This divide concerns, first, whether dynamic capabilities are routine or not, and, second, whether firms in dynamic environments deploy routine or non-routine dynamic capabilities. The divide is significant for theory, as it pertains to the conceptualization and boundary conditions of dynamic capabilities. The present study offers a pathway for reconciling the divide by overcoming the bifurcation of routine and non-routine dynamic capabilities that dominates the debate. Conceptually, we relax extant assumptions on dynamic capability routineness by allowing for the possibility that dynamic capabilities may vary in dimensions of their routineness (i.e., the frequency and structuring of dynamic capability activities). Findings of a fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis of 103 firms operating in more and in less dynamic environments reveal four configurations of dynamic capabilities (i.e., Entrepreneurial, Adaptive, Programmed, and Analytical) that fundamentally differ in their routineness. Moreover, we find that environmental dynamism does not constitute a boundary condition for the routineness of dynamic capabilities. In-depth analyses of 16 cases suggest that the different dynamic capability configurations we observe depend not only on environmental dynamism but also on distinct intra-firm conditions (i.e., organisational learning orientations and resource allocations). As its main contribution, this study offers a configurational framework explaining heterogeneity in the routineness of dynamic capabilities that advances our understanding of the nature and boundary conditions of dynamic capabilities.
Bin Chen, , Qiang Dong
The American Review of Public Administration; https://doi.org/10.1177/02750740211060037

Abstract:
This study employs a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to explore how combinations of demand- and supply-side factors jointly shape the scale of government-nonprofit contracting in social services across 38 Chinese cities. Our analysis reveals a huge disparity by identifying two pathways to large-scale government contracting for “to-have” (well-resourced cities with low service needs but a well-developed nonprofit sector) versus the other two pathways to small-scale government contracting for “to-have-not” (poorly-resourced cities with an underdeveloped nonprofit sector struggling with meeting high service needs). The study contributes to the literature by highlighting how different demand- and supply-side factors can complement each other to form different combinations in shaping the scale of government contracting with new empirical evidence from an authoritarian context. The rise of government-nonprofit contracting in China is more supply-driven, reflecting the government's active role in cultivating the nonprofit sector development. The findings also raise an important policy issue of accessibility and equity in social service provision.
Published: 4 November 2021
by MDPI
Sustainability, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132112162

Abstract:
The bioeconomy transition is seen as a means to achieving industrial competitiveness. Targeted actions on leverage points can have specific effects on transitional changes in system dynamics; these actions have yet to be identified in the context of the knowledge-based health bioeconomy in Kenya. This paper employs system dynamics and grounded theory to identify causations linked to the feedback mechanisms in a complex adaptive system specific to preventive medicine in Kenya. The causal relations identified will allow for extended empirical interrogations. We conducted sixteen semi-structured interviews with key informants using purposive and theoretical sampling. Through these interviews, we obtained detailed information on trends for leverage points for a transition to a bioeconomy in Kenya. We developed three qualitative themes along the structure of information flows, rules, and goals of the system. In addition, we determined the overall perception of the health bioeconomy and elaborated stakeholder-specific applications. We identified a dissociation as a general perception that knowledge generation is the preservation of the public sector. Government effectiveness was found to affect public-service turnaround time, transparency, and regulatory interventions. Finally, we identified weak network failures as the key system failures whose functional deficiencies can be exploited for future policy legitimation.
Yujia Jiang, Guobiao Li, Xu Cai, Zihan Yang, Yangjie Huang, Ling Zhang, Leilei Huang
Published: 28 October 2021
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.733319

Abstract:
At present, research in the field of college students' entrepreneurship has proliferated, but these studies tend to analyze the net benefits of various factors on entrepreneurial activities, which are affected by the configuration effects of multiple factors; hence, it remains unclear whether entrepreneurial education can make graduates more efficient to started their own companies. To fill this gap in the literature, drawing on general systems theory and using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), we take 1,87,914 undergraduate and junior college students from 1,231 colleges and universities in China as a sample to explore the relationships among the five conditions in the entrepreneurship education environment and cognitive level (i.e., the quality of staff, subject curriculum, entrepreneurial competition, intentions, and opportunity identifications) and entrepreneurial activities. The fsQCA results show that none of these factors are sufficient for entrepreneurial activity. In contrast, three combinations of the five conditions (i.e., co-creation type, competition-oriented environment, and entrepreneurship education that fits under the guidance of entrepreneurial intention) can produce high entrepreneurial activity, as well as substitution and complementarity among the various elements within the configuration. These results show that the combined effect of the five conditions is more conducive to the entrepreneurial activities of college students. Finally, after a discussion of the study's findings, theoretical, and practical contributions are analyzed with regard to the field of entrepreneurship in Chinese colleges, and alternative options indicate that college students are more likely to become entrepreneurs in the future.
Corporate Governance: An International Review; https://doi.org/10.1111/corg.12408

Abstract:
Research question/issue Albeit the fact that the ‘one-size-fits-all’ corporate governance model has been mostly discarded, the debate on what constitutes a well-governed firm has converged toward a set of practices that comprise what we refer to as the global good governance norm. Whereas extant research has focused mainly on the benefits of good governance, we build on neo-institutional theory to explore how firm conformity or nonconformity to this global norm is associated with the cost of board governance, captured as board compensation. Research findings/insights Using a fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) of firms listed in the Stockholm Stock Exchange, we find that the configurations of board practices conforming to the global good governance norm are associated with higher board compensation than those that score low on conformity. Based on our findings, we deduce four archetypical board design strategies jointly shaped by two central forces: the pressure toward conformity to the good governance norm and the extent of governance discretion, denoting firm agentic behavior. Theoretical/academic implications First, our study highlights that conformity to the global good governance norm is accompanied with higher costs than nonconformity. Second, while most of the extant research discusses conformity and agentic behavior as two opposing forces, we uncover that they simultaneously co-exist in board governance, stressing their interconnectedness. Practitioner/policy implications Conformity to the global good governance norm influences the strategic choices of board designs and the costs associated with such choices.
Published: 12 October 2021
Economic Geography, Volume 97, pp 475-496; https://doi.org/10.1080/00130095.2021.1972801

Abstract:
This article argues that the development of regional innovation concepts, drawing primarily on the experiences of advanced regions, has led to inadequate narratives about the experience of less-developed regions (LDRs). Drawing on the extensive experience of the authors doing research in LDRs, the article develops three main arguments: first it examines the limitations of endogenous approaches to regional development, in particular concerning the role of formal dynamics (within organizations and institutions) in innovation systems. It will be argued that understanding the role of formal dynamics is fundamental to avoid culturally deterministic explanations of regional (under)development and to help design more effective policies. Second, this article will explore the literature that demonstrates the complex interplay between innovation, institutions, and regional development. The authors argue that though innovation is fundamental for long-term economic growth, innovation at firm level is not sufficient to generate development. Third, this article distills the policy implications of the foregoing analysis, namely, by highlighting alternatives to current models of innovation-based, export-based development.
Anastasiya Zavyalova, ,
Abstract:
An ongoing discussion in organizational studies has focused on the path-dependent nature of organizational reputation. To date, however, there has been little explanation about when and why some constituents’ reputation judgments remain stable, whereas others are more prone to change. We contribute to this research by developing a relational theory of reputational stability and change. Our fundamental argument is that differences in constituent-organization relationships, as well as in the reputational communities that surround these relationships, affect the stability and change of reputation judgments. First, we highlight three relationship characteristics—favorability, history, and directness—and theorize that the reputation judgments of constituents with more unfavorable, longer, and more direct relationships with an organization are more stable, whereas the reputation judgments of constituents with more favorable, shorter, and more indirect relationships with the organization are less stable. We then develop the concept of reputational communities as a key source of indirect information about organizations. We highlight that the immediacy, size, and level of agreement within reputational communities affect how influential they are in changing individual constituents’ reputation judgments. Specifically, we propose that more immediate and larger reputational communities with a higher level of agreement are most likely to change individual constituents’ reputation judgments, whereas more distant and smaller reputational communities with a lower level of agreement are least likely to do so. Overall, we position constituents’ relationships with an organization and the communities that surround these relationships as central elements for understanding reputational stability and change.
Zhixiu Wang, Junying Liu, Xinya Guan
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management; https://doi.org/10.1108/ecam-10-2020-0841

Abstract:
Purpose Although the global construction industry has made great contributions to economic development, industry corruption is a challenge for governments all over the world. This paper aims to investigate the causal complexity of organizational corruption by exploring the configuration effect of multiple induced conditions of corruption in the construction sector. Design/methodology/approach This study is focused on bribery, a specific form of corrupt behavior through a scenario-based survey role-playing game in which participants encounter bribery. A total of 400 Chinese construction sector participants were randomly recruited to complete this survey. Findings Compared with studies that have identified a number of factors associated with corruption in the construction sector, this study found asymmetry and complexity in the causality of organizational corruption. That is, when a variable causing corruption changes from one condition to its opposite – for example, from fierce to mild competition – the degree of corruption is not necessarily reduced as one may expect. Practical implications Anti-corruption measures should not rely solely on the net effects of discrete conditions and the interactions between multiple factors should not be ignored. In other words, anti-corruption strategies should not be implemented in isolation of their context, and pairing control measures with configurations is critical in controlling corruption. Finally, multiple configuration paths should be reconsidered when considering the degree of corruption reduction. Originality/value This study proposes a comprehensive analysis framework for addressing organizational corruption in the construction sector by investigating configuration effects of multiple induced conditions and offers a useful method for addressing corruption.
Published: 20 August 2021
Journal of International Management; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intman.2021.100879

Abstract:
Multinational corporations (MNCs) are proactive, entrepreneurial, and decentralized organizations. They seek to incorporate and leverage knowledge from their foreign subsidiaries. Initiatives in which subsidiaries pursue new business opportunities are one way that subsidiaries contribute to MNCs' knowledge stocks, but prior research suggests that few subsidiary initiatives secure headquarters approval. We argue that the extent to which initiatives are accepted by the headquarters of an MNC depends on a range of relational and contextual conditions that configure in complex ways. Using a neoconfigurational approach, we identify five equifinal configurations associated with the acceptance of subsidiary initiatives. We advance theory of subsidiary management by uncovering how subsidiary activities gain traction within the MNC.
Published: 6 August 2021
Quality & Quantity pp 1-25; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-021-01193-9

Abstract:
This study assesses the extent to which the two main Configurational Comparative Methods (CCMs), i.e. Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and Coincidence Analysis (CNA), produce different models. It further explains how this non-identity is due to the different algorithms upon which both methods are based, namely QCA’s Quine–McCluskey algorithm and the CNA algorithm. I offer an overview of the fundamental differences between QCA and CNA and demonstrate both underlying algorithms on three data sets of ascending proximity to real-world data. Subsequent simulation studies in scenarios of varying sample sizes and degrees of noise in the data show high overall ratios of non-identity between the QCA parsimonious solution and the CNA atomic solution for varying analytical choices, i.e. different consistency and coverage threshold values and ways to derive QCA’s parsimonious solution. Clarity on the contrasts between the two methods is supposed to enable scholars to make more informed decisions on their methodological approaches, enhance their understanding of what is happening behind the results generated by the software packages, and better navigate the interpretation of results. Clarity on the non-identity between the underlying algorithms and their consequences for the results is supposed to provide a basis for a methodological discussion about which method and which variants thereof are more successful in deriving which search target.
, Stav Fainshmidt,
Administrative Science Quarterly; https://doi.org/10.1177/00018392211022726

Abstract:
What drives organizational nonconformity to global corporate governance norms? Despite the prevalence of such norms and attendant conformity pressures, many firms do not adhere to them. We build on a political view of corporate governance to explore how different national institutional contexts and organizational conditions combine to produce over- and underconformity to global board independence norms. Using configurational analyses and data from banks in OECD countries, we identify multiple equifinal combinations of conditions associated with over- and underconformity. We also find that over- and underconformity have different drivers. We conjecture that while overconformity is associated with a shareholder–management coalition in liberal market economies, underconformity results from multiple complex combinations of national and organizational conditions that often include dominant blockholders, strong labor rights, and small organizational size. We leverage these findings to abduct theoretical insights on nonconformity to global corporate governance norms. Doing so sheds light on the role of power in conditioning the adoption of global practices and contributes to research on international corporate governance by informing discourse surrounding the globalization of markets.
Chuanjing Ju,
Production Planning & Control pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1080/09537287.2021.1926567

Abstract:
Project design has to be coordinated in an inter-functional team. This is critically challenging due to the knowledge-intensive nature of project design, the occupational boundaries between functions and time pressure facing project teams. This study aims to tackle this challenge by identifying the configurations of coordination mechanisms, i.e. mechanistic and organic coordination, adopted by inter-functional teams in the face of a high level of time pressure. A questionnaire-survey of 311 respondents from 46 building design projects was undertaken in China. Data were analyzed through a configurational analysis approach. The results show that two configurations could equally lead to high performance. Under a high level of time pressure, the configuration of formal coordination, digitally-mediated structured coordination, and cross-functional meetings is helpful to achieve high project design performance. If mechanistic coordination is absent, team members could equally accomplish superb design performance through organic coordination. This research contributes to the body of knowledge by presenting how inter-functional teams configure coordination mechanisms to deal with knowledge-intensive project design in the face of time pressure.
, Hadi Ghaderi, Amir Andargoli
Business Strategy and the Environment, Volume 30, pp 3866-3881; https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.2845

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Stav Fainshmidt, Kira Haensel, Daniel S. Andrews
Abstract:
International business (IB) research focused on practical insights requires analytical techniques that come closer to reality by embracing complexity. In this article, we discuss Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), a configurational technique researchers can leverage to study complex causal patterns in IB phenomena. We briefly review the basics of QCA, provide an example of how it can be applied to study practical IB issues, and outline the first steps for researchers situated at the intersection of IB practice and scholarship. Employing such techniques may make applied IB research even better positioned to make impactful contributions to practice and society.
Published: 27 May 2021
Small Business Economics pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-021-00515-3

Abstract:
The literature emphasizes that interactions between biotic (the individual) and abiotic entities (the institutional environment) are central to entrepreneurial ecosystems. However, despite the importance of digital entrepreneurial ecosystem (DEE) elements, it might be questioned if all elements are equally necessary. Furthermore, different outputs might require different conditions. The same can happen with different levels of a given output. The answer to these questions is of particular concern from a policy perspective. By using necessary condition analysis (NCA) alongside with fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fs/QCA), this study advances understanding of the entrepreneurial ecosystems. While fs/QCA identifies only one necessary condition to produce digitally-enabled unicorns – market conditions – and none to unicorns and new business creation, NCA shows that all elements of DEE are necessary to produce digitally-enabled unicorns, and most of them are also necessary for producing unicorns. NCA also identifies formal institutions, regulations, and taxation and finance as necessary conditions for new business creation. Moreover, NCA shows that necessary conditions do not have the same degree of importance, and the necessity of a given condition does not automatically imply its highest level is required. For researchers, these results emphasize the importance of using NCA as a complement of fs/QCA. For practitioners, these findings can be used to optimize the allocation of policy resources, particularly targeting the elements that constitute bottlenecks. Plain English Summary Policymakers should target different levels of entrepreneurial ecosystem pillars performance to produce unicorns. Ambitious entrepreneurship is important for country competitiveness in the digital age. Digital entrepreneurial ecosystems can facilitate the rise of digitally-enabled unicorns, an extreme case of ambitious entrepreneurship. This study shows which conditions are necessary to produce this output; these conditions can be required at different levels. The comparison of country’s performance on each condition shows which of them constitute bottlenecks. Although all elements of digital entrepreneurial ecosystems are relevant for digitally-enabled unicorns, policymakers should target the ones that constrain the emergence of this output. This study identifies the levels that should be reached in each condition, not only for digitally-enabled unicorns, but also for unicorns in general. The results show relevant differences between the levels needed for these outputs. For example, knowledge creation and dissemination seem to be more important to boost digitally-enabled unicorns rather than unicorns in general. Thus, policymakers should consider specific levels of the conditions to optimize resource allocation.
Kai Guo, Tiantian Zhang
Mathematical Problems in Engineering, Volume 2021, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/9960828

Abstract:
Combining with the growth environment of Unicorns, from the aspects of emerging industries, business environment, platform support, and financial support, we propose an overall analysis framework for the existence or absence of Unicorns, use the fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) method to carry out configuration analysis on the status quo of Unicorns in 40 cities in China, and analyze the cultivation path of Unicorns. The research results indicate that the synergy of emerging industries, business environment, platform support, and financial support can foster Unicorns. According to the differences in the core conditions in the configuration and the characteristics of the cases contained, it is divided into two cultivation paths, which are driven by emerging industries and supported by the business environment; combining with the status quo and characteristics of the cities where Unicorns are missing, it provides suggestions for the selection of the cultivation path of Unicorns in different regions.
, Marcus Zimmer,
International Journal of Operations & Production Management; https://doi.org/10.1108/ijopm-08-2020-0537

Abstract:
Purpose The purpose of this study is to explain how the application of fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) and experiments can advance theory development in the field of servitization by generating better causal explanations. Design/methodology/approach FsQCA and experiments are established research methods that are suited for developing causal explanations but are rarely utilized by servitization scholars. To support their application, we explain how fsQCA and experiments represent distinct ways of developing causal explanations, provide guidelines for their practical application and highlight potential application areas for a future research agenda in the servitization domain. Findings FsQCA enables specification of cause–effects relationships that result in equifinal paths to an intended outcome. Experiments have the highest explanatory power and enable the drawing of direct causal conclusions through reliance on an interventionist logic. Together, these methods provide complementary ways of developing and testing theory when the research objective is to understand the causal pathways that lead to observed outcomes. Practical implications Applications of fsQCA help to explain to managers why there are numerous causal routes to attaining an intended outcome from servitization. Experiments support managerial decision-making by providing definitive “yes/no” answers to key managerial questions that address clearly specified cause–effect relationships. Originality/value The main contribution of this study is to help advance theory development in servitization by encouraging greater methodological plurality in a field that relies primarily on the qualitative case study methodology.
Published: 26 April 2021
Journal of Business Economics, Volume 91, pp 1189-1223; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11573-021-01040-1

Abstract:
Executives are increasingly facing various challenges associated with digitalisation, especially the simultaneous handling of many topics, loads of information flushing in via digital channels, rapid changes, and finding the right balance between the old and the new. Building on a growing body of research suggesting and systematising leadership skills, we conduct an online-survey with executives to investigate the connection between selected skills and the ability to cope with specific challenges. We find that a strong ability to think and act entrepreneurially, (self-)organisation and IT skills, a profound ability to motivate others, and a high degree of flexibility, commitment, and creativity are positively linked to the ability to cope with several digitalisation-related challenges. Surprisingly, being a strong team player does not seem to be necessarily advantageous. Moreover, many executives desire more calmness, which suggests that being able to decelerate is important in the digital age.
, David Pickernell, Martina Battisti, Thang Nguyen
Published: 1 April 2021
Small Business Economics pp 1-21; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-021-00477-6

Abstract:
In recent years, entrepreneurs have increasingly turned to crowdfunding, a new form of entrepreneurial finance, to fund projects. Whilst research has shown that signals originating from the entrepreneur and project can affect the outcome of crowdfunding, how different signals work together under different signalling environments remains underexplored. Drawing on signalling theory, we examine how signals of entrepreneurs’ credibility (success, failure, backer and industry experience) and project quality (preparedness and third-party endorsements) produce crowdfunding success in different signalling environments. We collected a unique dataset with matched projects listed on both Kickstarter and Indiegogo, but with different funding models, to represent two distinct signalling environments. Results based on qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) identify two distinct signalling patterns that show entrepreneur’s credibility and project quality signals can complement each other to produce crowdfunding success. In an environment with less uncertainty, entrepreneur’s credibility in terms of crowdfunding experience can also compensate absent project quality to produce crowdfunding success. In an environment with higher uncertainty, entrepreneur’s credibility and project quality need to be both present to establish the necessary legitimacy for crowdfunding to be successful. Furthermore, by integrating positive (i.e. success) and negative (i.e. failure) signals, we demonstrate how signal incongruence can enhance crowdfunding success.Plain English Summary Failure experience is an important signal in achieving crowdfunding success, but its effectiveness depends on other signals as well as the signalling environment. Our study shows how crowdfunding success can be achieved in multiple ways and that the path to success depends on the funding model of the platform used. For entrepreneurs to demonstrate credibility, backer experience and project preparedness are important. Both are under the control of the entrepreneur and well worth considering investing effort into. Importantly, the study also shows that demonstrating failure experience is important in achieving crowdfunding success. Failure experience can either replace the lack of prior success experience by demonstrating a track record of learning or it can enhance prior success experience by producing a more realistic picture of the entrepreneurs. Thus, the study offers practical implications for entrepreneurs on how to use different signals to increase the likelihood of success in reward-based crowdfunding.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073635

Abstract:
Significant efforts in the past decades to teach evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation has emphasized increasing knowledge of EBP and developing interventions to support adoption to practice. These efforts have resulted in only limited sustained improvements in the daily use of evidence-based interventions in clinical practice in most health professions. Many new interventions with limited evidence of effectiveness are readily adopted each year—indicating openness to change is not the problem. The selection of an intervention is the outcome of an elaborate and complex cognitive process, which is shaped by how they represent the problem in their mind and is mostly invisible processes to others. Therefore, the complex thinking process that support appropriate adoption of interventions should be taught more explicitly. Making the process visible to clinicians increases the acquisition of the skills required to judiciously select one intervention over others. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the selection process and the critical analysis that is required to appropriately decide to trial or not trial new intervention strategies with patients.
, Ping Deng, Yanyan Cao, Xing Hua
Published: 9 March 2021
Management Decision, Volume 59, pp 2970-2991; https://doi.org/10.1108/md-08-2020-0986

Abstract:
Purpose: Post-acquisition control is a crucial factor affecting acquisition performance. We investigate how post-acquisition control strategy affects cross-border acquisition performance of Chinese multinational enterprises (MNEs) through a configurational perspective.Design/methodology/approach: Based on 70 cross-border acquisition cases by Chinese MNEs, we adopt fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to study the combined effects of strategic control, operational control, institutional distance, cultural distance, relative capacity and business relatedness on the cross-border acquisition performance.Findings: On the basis of fuzzy set analysis of multiple interdependent factors, we identify six configurations that are conductive to achieving high cross-border acquisition performance and two configurations that relate to the absence of high performance, thus shedding light on the casually complex nature of performance drivers of acquisitions.Originality/value: This study provides a holistic, configurational approach to investigating cross-border acquisition performance by emerging market firms. Our results provide some compelling evidence that accounts for the causal complexity of post-acquisition control strategies and acquisition outcomes in the context of emerging economies.
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Volume 93; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2021.102732

Abstract:
Previous findings have established that satisfaction with public transport service quality attributes (reliability/functionality, information, courtesy/simplicity, comfort, safety) relate to overall travel satisfaction. Recent studies propose that the importance of these attributes for travel satisfaction varies in different contexts and call for new approaches for enhancing the understanding of these relationships. We address this call by using a configurational perspective and applying fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA), to explore how satisfaction with service quality attributes relate to high travel satisfaction. By analyzing user survey data before and after an intervention in public transport services in a Swedish city, we: 1) find that high travel satisfaction occurs in the interaction between service quality attributes; 2) identify different configurations of satisfaction with service quality attributes leading to high travel satisfaction; and 3) show how context alters overall travel satisfaction. We conclude that using a configurational approach is useful for understanding the complexity of travel satisfaction.
Riccardo Santamaria, Francesco Paolone, , Luca Dezi
Business Strategy and the Environment, Volume 30, pp 1993-2007; https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.2728

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Anna Samsonova-Taddei, Henri Guénin
Behavioral Research in Accounting, Volume 33, pp 1-20; https://doi.org/10.2308/bria-18-016

Abstract:
This study aims to enhance our understanding of the practice of risk management, and specifically how corporate boards fulfill their responsibilities regarding risk oversight. We draw on a theoretical perspective centered on (dis)comfort and 25 interviews with corporate board members and risk management consultants in Canada to present a view of risk management as a set of activities characterized by tension between actions that engender the feeling of discomfort, and a quest for comfort and reassurance. Our findings provide insights that show how, alongside the functionalist underpinnings, comfort-seeking represents a pervasive imperative that profoundly shapes risk management in action.
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