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(searched for: doi:10.4236/ojsst.2020.102004)
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, A. N. Kopysov
Power engineering: research, equipment, technology, Volume 23; doi:10.30724/1998-9903-2021-23-2-36-45

Abstract:
THE PURPOSE. To consider the features of the socio-economic development of Russia in the context of the fourth energy transition, which is based on the use of renewable energy sources and hydrogen as an energy carrier. To carry out a comparative analysis of approaches to the development and implementation of hydrogen energy programs in developed countries and in Russia. METHODOLOGY. To solve this problem, the method of analyzing the regulatory framework, monographic, scientific and analytical literature, program documents of various levels, real steps of the authorities in the implementation of the fourth energy transition was used. DISCUSSIONS. The current economic model of energy production and consumption is based on an increase in entropy, which leads to irreversible changes in the global ecosystem. The fourth energy transition involves the delocalization of energy production and the use of dissipated energy, which leads to a decrease in entropy. The transition to the use of renewable energy sources carries economic risks associated with the loss of established markets for traditional energy sources, a reduction in the production of products and services for the oil and gas sector of the economy, as well as the introduction of a "carbon tax" on the export products of Russian companies. Russia has achieved certain results in the development of hydrogen energy technologies, which can lead to access to international markets for hydrogen and technologies for its production. It is necessary to work with the public to explain the benefits of green energy. It is important to coordinate the actions of the Government of the Russian Federation and business to reduce costs during the transition to new energy. CONCLUSION. The authors have proposed measures that must be taken into account when implementing the Action Plan ("road map") for the development of hydrogen energy in the Russian Federation until 2024. 1. To supplement the roadmap with a system of measures to inform the population of the need to introduce green energy, including programs of additional, general secondary and higher education. 2. To change the structure of the Federal State Educational Standard of general secondary education in terms of including chemistry and biology in the list of compulsory subjects in order to provide personnel with hydrogen energy. 3. Determine the priority of projects on renewable energy sources and hydrogen energy in the formation of tender documentation by the development institutes of the Russian Federation. 4. Ensure real decarbonization of the country's energy sector to maintain the export positions of raw materials, food and industrial goods of Russian manufacturers.
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