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(searched for: doi:10.1186/s12929-020-00654-x)
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Shahad W. Kattan, Yahya H. Hobani, Sameerah Shaheen, Sara H. Mokhtar, Mohammad H. Hussein, Eman A. Toraih, , Hussein Abdelaziz Abdalla
Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters, Volume 26, pp 1-25; doi:10.1186/s11658-021-00258-9

Abstract:
Background The expression signature of deregulated long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and related genetic variants is implicated in every stage of tumorigenesis, progression, and recurrence. This study aimed to explore the association of lncRNA cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B antisense RNA 1 (CDKN2B-AS1) gene expression and the rs2383207A>G intronic variant with breast cancer (BC) risk and prognosis and to verify the molecular role and networks of this lncRNA in BC by bioinformatics gene analysis. Methods Serum CDKN2B-AS1 relative expression and rs2383207 genotypes were determined in 214 unrelated women (104 primary BC and 110 controls) using real-time PCR. Sixteen BC studies from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) including 8925 patients were also retrieved for validation of results. Results CDKN2B-AS1 serum levels were upregulated in the BC patients relative to controls. A/A genotype carriers were three times more likely to develop BC under homozygous (OR = 3.27, 95% CI 1.20–8.88, P = 0.044) and recessive (OR = 3.17, 95% CI 1.20–8.34, P = 0.013) models. G/G homozygous patients had a higher expression level [median and quartile values were 3.14 (1.52–4.25)] than A/G [1.42 (0.93–2.35)] and A/A [1.62 (1.33–2.51)] cohorts (P = 0.006). The Kaplan–Meier curve also revealed a higher mean survival duration of G/G cohorts (20.6 months) compared to their counterparts (A/A: 15.8 and A/G: 17.2 months) (P < 0.001). Consistently, BC data sets revealed better survival in cohorts with high expression levels (P = 0.003). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a deviation of patients who had shorter survival towards A/A and A/G genotypes, multiple lesions, advanced stage, lymphovascular invasion, and HER2+ receptor staining. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) showed key genes highly enriched in BC with CDKN2B-AS1. Conclusions The findings support the putative role of CDKN2B-AS1 as an epigenetic marker in BC and open a new avenue for its potential use as a therapeutic molecular target in this type of cancer.
Shahad W Kattan, Yahya H Hobani, Sameerah Shaheen, Sara H Mokhtar, Mohammad H Hussein, Eman A Toraih, , Hussein Abdelaziz Abdalla
Published: 13 April 2021
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 4 March 2021
Cancers, Volume 13; doi:10.3390/cancers13051102

Abstract:
Within aggressive malignancies, there usually are the “hypoxic zones”—poorly vascularized regions where tumor cells undergo oxygen deficiency through inadequate blood supply. Besides, hypoxia may arise in tumors as a result of antiangiogenic therapy or transarterial embolization. Adapting to hypoxia, tumor cells acquire a hypoxia-resistant phenotype with the characteristic alterations in signaling, gene expression and metabolism. Both the lack of oxygen by itself and the hypoxia-responsive phenotypic modulations render tumor cells more radioresistant, so that hypoxic tumors are a serious challenge for radiotherapy. An understanding of causes of the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors would help to develop novel ways for overcoming this challenge. Molecular targets for and various approaches to radiosensitizing hypoxic tumors are considered in the present review. It is here analyzed how the hypoxia-induced cellular responses involving hypoxia-inducible factor-1, heat shock transcription factor 1, heat shock proteins, glucose-regulated proteins, epigenetic regulators, autophagy, energy metabolism reprogramming, epithelial–mesenchymal transition and exosome generation contribute to the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors or may be inhibited for attenuating this radioresistance. The pretreatments with a multitarget inhibition of the cancer cell adaptation to hypoxia seem to be a promising approach to sensitizing hypoxic carcinomas, gliomas, lymphomas, sarcomas to radiotherapy and, also, liver tumors to radioembolization.
Pei-Hua Peng, Kai-Wen Hsu, Joseph Chieh-Yu Lai,
Published: 1 March 2021
Biomedical Journal; doi:10.1016/j.bj.2021.03.005

Abstract:
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are noncoding RNAs with length greater than 200 nt. The biological roles and mechanisms mediated by lncRNAs have been extensively investigated. Hypoxia is a proven microenvironmental factor that promotes solid tumor metastasis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the major mechanisms induced by hypoxia to contribute to metastasis. Many lncRNAs have been shown to be induced by hypoxia and their roles have been delineated. In this review, we focus on the hypoxia-inducible lncRNAs that interact with protein/protein complex and chromatin/epigenetic factors, and the mechanisms that contribute to metastasis. The role of a recently discovered lncRNA RP11-390F4.3 in hypoxia-induced EMT is discussed. Whole genome approaches to delineating the association between lncRNAs and histone modifications are discussed. Other topics related to hypoxia-induced tumor progression but require further investigation are also mentioned. The clinical significance and treatment strategy targeted against lncRNAs are discussed. The review aims to identify suitable lncRNA targets that may provide feasible therapeutic venues for hypoxia-involved cancers.
Pengpeng Zhu, Fang He, Yixuan Hou, Gang Tu, Qiao Li, Ting Jin, Huan Zeng, Yilu Qin, Xueying Wan, Yina Qiao, et al.
Published: 19 January 2021
Oncogene, Volume 40, pp 1609-1627; doi:10.1038/s41388-020-01638-9

Abstract:
The hostile hypoxic microenvironment takes primary responsibility for the rapid expansion of breast cancer tumors. However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here, using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis, we identified a hypoxia-induced long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) KB-1980E6.3, which is aberrantly upregulated in clinical breast cancer tissues and closely correlated with poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. The enhanced lncRNA KB-1980E6.3 facilitates breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) self-renewal and tumorigenesis under hypoxic microenvironment both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, lncRNA KB-1980E6.3 recruited insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) to form a lncRNA KB-1980E6.3/IGF2BP1/c-Myc signaling axis that retained the stability of c-Myc mRNA through increasing binding of IGF2BP1 with m6A-modified c-Myc coding region instability determinant (CRD) mRNA. In conclusion, we confirm that lncRNA KB-1980E6.3 maintains the stemness of BCSCs through lncRNA KB-1980E6.3/IGF2BP1/c-Myc axis and suggest that disrupting this axis might provide a new therapeutic target for refractory hypoxic tumors.
Feng Li, , Dapeng Li,
Published: 1 January 2021
Seminars in Cancer Biology; doi:10.1016/j.semcancer.2020.11.018

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Yang Zhang, Ying Xiao, Gui-Chen Li, Feng-Yan Gong, Xiao-Na Zhang, Kun Hou
Published: 1 September 2020
Seminars in Cancer Biology; doi:10.1016/j.semcancer.2020.08.016

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