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(searched for: doi:10.1080/09669582.2020.1745214)
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Published: 12 September 2022
Journal of Sustainable Tourism pp 1-23; https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2022.2115050

Abstract:
Policies to reduce air travel demand, including in the tourism sector, are urgently required as air travel’s climate impact keeps growing while low-carbon aviation remains a distant perspective. Policy options include flat rate taxes per flight, taxes on flight miles or emissions, or frequent flyer levies, yet little is known about how their distributional impacts compare. This paper examines the distributional effects of various air travel tax options for the UK, informed by an analysis of the distribution of (frequent) flights and associated emissions over income and other social characteristics. We find that ‘frequent flights’ are even more unequally distributed than all flights and that all taxes on air travel are distributionally neutral or progressive. The most progressive option is a ‘frequent air miles tax’ based on both the number of flights and emissions. At the same time, some social groups like recent migrants are relatively likely to be ‘frequent flyers’ even on lower incomes. Overall however, our results show that taxing air travel is far less regressive than taxing home energy or motor fuels. Taxes on air travel, while often portrayed as unfair in public discourses, therefore raise fewer fairness concerns than other types of carbon taxes.
Zahra Sadat Saneian, Seyed Mohammad Tabataba'I-Nasab, Saeid Saeida Ardakani, Masood Khodadadi
Published: 12 August 2022
Journal of Islamic Marketing; https://doi.org/10.1108/jima-02-2022-0068

Abstract:
Purpose: Values are both an effective variable and a powerful stimulus for consumer behavior. Values are different concepts and classifications influenced by factors such as culture and religion in different societies. This paper aims to identify the classification of values in an Islamic country’s context, Iran. Design/methodology/approach: Iranian dominant values were identified through qualitative analysis and in-depth interviews with 77 interviewees. Grounded theory was used to identify theoretical categories that are derived from the interview data through the use of the constant comparative method. Findings: The findings revealed three categories of hedonic, utilitarian and Islamic spiritual values, which include 10 types of values. The third value (Islamic spiritual) was identified and defined according to the Iranian Islamic religion and ideology. Interviewees expressed their values, attitudes and behaviors within the framework of their unique value system. Originality/value: To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is one of the first articles that pay special attention to Islamic spiritual values as an influential value category in the buying behaviors and intentions of Iranian consumers. Undoubtedly, identifying these values can be an introduction to studying behaviors influenced by values and a powerful tool for managers to predict and evaluate Islamic consumers’ behavior and lifestyles.
, Sylvain Weber, Adan L. Martinez-Cruz, Paul Burger, Mehdi Farsi
Published: 18 March 2022
Frontiers in Sustainability, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.3389/frsus.2022.837427

Abstract:
The availability of big data allows a wide range of predictive analyses that could inform policies for promoting sustainable behaviors. While providing great predictive power, adopted models fall short in explaining the underlying mechanisms of behavior. However, predictive analyses can be enhanced by complementary theory-based inferential analyses, guiding tailored policy design to focus on relevant response mechanisms. This paper illustrates the complementary value of multidisciplinary inferential models in informing large predictive models. We focus on Structural Equation Modeling, an approach suitable for a holistic examination of different pathways and hypotheses from multiple disciplines. Drawing on an interdisciplinary theoretical framework we develop an empirically tractable model and apply it to a sample of household data from Switzerland. The model focuses on the relationships that delineate the underlying mechanisms for energy consumption behaviors in the case of private transportation. The results are discussed in light of possible contributions to policies aiming at the promotion of sustainable travel behavior as well as data requirements for analyses relying on big data.
, Iljana Schubert
Published: 16 March 2022
Energy Research & Social Science, Volume 89; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2022.102570

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Hsiao Hsien Lin, I-Yun Chen, Shih-Yun Lu, Yi-Han Tseng, Jao-Chuan Lin
Published: 1 January 2022
Journal: Open Geosciences
Open Geosciences, Volume 14, pp 590-606; https://doi.org/10.1515/geo-2022-0358

Abstract:
This study aims to analyze the impact of attractiveness, satisfaction, and willingness to revisit in the perception of cultural tourism tourists and whether cultural tourism could be a remedy to revitalize rural economic development under the epidemic, using the Hakka settlement in Hukeng town as a case study. In this study, a mixed research method is applied to collect 670 questionnaires by snowball sampling and used SPSS 26.0 statistical software to conduct basic statistical validation and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (PPMCC) validation; the semi-structured is also used semi-structured interviews to collect the opinions of six experts and scholars, and the final results were examined by multivariate validation. The researchers found the following dimensions to be attractive for tourists to experience cultural tourism: rural scenery, heritage museums and cultural goods, low spending, use of media marketing, planning for proper tourism information, and public transportation construction effectiveness. However, there is also a need to improve the current situation of rural tourism transportation and transportation facilities, inject young development manpower, improve the knowledge and skills of the elderly to start their businesses, develop business opportunities, and stabilize prices, and improve the quality and satisfaction of tourists to promote the desire to travel. The higher the attractiveness, the higher the satisfaction, and the stronger the willingness to revisit.
Published: 3 October 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Sustainability
Sustainability, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910997

Abstract:
Social scientists have argued that ethical consumption is embedded into broader lifestyles running across various domains of social life. For instance, fair trade consumption might be part of a distinctive lifestyle, including behaviors such as going to fancy restaurants or the opera. We, therefore, investigate the relationships of the main dimensions of broader lifestyles to various aspects of fair trade consumption—from purchase frequency, to visiting specialized stores, to the identification with fair trade. The analysis relies on data collected in the Summer of 2011 in Zurich, Switzerland. Since per capita consumption of fair trade products in this country was on a comparatively high level, the results are also important for other societies experiencing only currently the mainstreaming of fair trade. The first dimension, distinctiveness of lifestyles, denoting orientations and behaviors with high social prestige in society, emerges as a substantial and important determinant of all included aspects of fair trade consumption. The second dimension, modernity, is only correlated with a subset of these aspects. These effects are robust, even when taking ethical and political orientations and resource endowment into account. Hence, differences between lifestyle groups do not simply reflect the social position of high-status consumers or their ethical and political views. They reflect orientations, mental representations and routines specific to these social groups. Broader lifestyles are, therefore, a relevant addition to explanations of fair trade consumption.
Martin Thomas Falk,
Published: 9 June 2021
Journal: Urban Planning
Urban Planning, Volume 6, pp 246-256; https://doi.org/10.17645/up.v6i2.3972

Abstract:
This article estimates a count-data model on the flight behaviour of Austrian holiday-makers based on information from a large representative quarterly survey spanning the years 2014–2016. On average, the number of holiday flights ranges between 0.6 and 1.2 per year for residents in the least populated region and the capital, respectively. Results of the estimations reveal that the number of holiday flights is highest for persons with tertiary degrees, of a young age (16–24 years) and capital city residents, while it is lowest for individuals with children and large households. Residents of the capital city fly 78 percent more often in a given quarter than those living in Carinthia, the most rural region. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis reveals that the difference is rather related to location than to variations in individual characteristics. Socio-demographic aspects such as age, household size and travelling with children are of no relevance for the holiday flying behaviour of capital residents.
, Josephine Tröger, Paula Prior, Gerhard Reese
Published: 30 March 2021
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.622842

Abstract:
Global crises such as the climate crisis require fast concerted action, but individual and structural barriers prevent a socio-ecological transformation in crucial areas such as the mobility sector. An identification with people all over the world (i.e., global identity) and an openness toward less consumption (i.e., sufficiency orientation) may represent psychological drivers of a socio-ecological transformation. We examined the compatibility of both concepts as well as their relation to people’s support of a decarbonised mobility system and their flight mobility behaviour – a CO2-intensive behaviour that may be particularly difficult to refrain from for globally identified people, but less so for sufficiency-oriented people. In an online study conducted in Germany (N = 317), we found that global identity and sufficiency orientation were positively related. Both were negatively related to past flight-related CO2 emissions and positively related to refraining from flying and the support of decarbonised mobility policies. Accounting for both showed that sufficiency orientation in particular was related to fewer flight-related CO2 emissions and refraining from flying. Furthermore, we examined people’s travel experiences. While global identity was unrelated to the frequency and duration of international travelling, it was positively related to the frequency and quality of contact with local people met on journeys. An experimental variation of whether participants first answered questions on global identity or on travel experiences revealed that remembering past international travelling led to higher reported levels of global identity. Taken together, global identity seems to profit from in-depth international contact with people, but can be decoupled from resource-intensive travel behaviour. Globally identified and sufficiency-oriented people may support a socio-ecological transformation. Our results indicate a compatibility of global identity and sufficiency orientation. Experimental and longitudinal research should examine causal links to foster our understanding of the conditions under which both can be strengthened.
Published: 12 January 2021
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Volume 28, pp 22969-22980; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-12219-4

Abstract:
This study estimates factors of importance for the carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions generated by travellers flying for different reasons based on representative Austrian micro data for the period 2014–2016. The annual average number of flights taken by adults vary between 0.1 (visiting friends) and 0.8 (going on holiday), and the amount of CO2e emissions generated by each return flight is approximately 1100 kg. This leads to a total of 6 million tonnes CO2e emissions per year. Results of the Pseudo Poisson Maximum Likelihood estimations reveal that the amount of CO2e emissions created is related to socio-demographic, locational and seasonal factors, although mainly for the largest group of travellers: the holiday makers. In this group, individuals with university degrees, young persons (16–24 years) and capital city residents generate the largest amounts of emissions, as opposed to persons with children and large households. Residents of the capital region each quarter cause 64 kg more CO2e emissions than inhabitants of rural areas, persons with university degrees create 74 kg larger emissions than those without degrees and young adults instigate 90 kg more emissions than middle-aged persons. CO2e emissions of holiday flights are highest in the first quarter of the year. The importance of education is also pronounced for CO2e emissions related to business travel, as is gender.
, Viachaslau Filimonau, Miroslav D. Vujičić
Published: 20 May 2020
Tourism Geographies, Volume 22, pp 703-712; https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1768432

Abstract:
Many see the COVID-19 pandemic as a turning point for tourism, a chance to reflect on the pressing environmental and socio-economic concerns of the industry, and an opportunity to pinpoint a more desirable direction. However, for tourism to revive as a less impactful and more meaningful industry, more mindful consumers are needed to take factual benefits from the gravity of the current situation. Mindfulness as a practice of bringing a certain quality of attention to moment-by-moment experiences has become an important asset for individuals to cope with the problems of modern life. It is even seen as a significant driver of lifestyle change in Western societies, resulting in an increasing number of more conscious consumers and mindfulness-driven products and services. The COVID-19 pandemic is a wake-up call and opportunity for the tourism industry to embrace the mindfulness movement, trusting in its capacity to reflect on the current problems and to pave a new way forward towards more compassionate and meaningful tourism for both hosts and guests.
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