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(searched for: doi:10.1016/j.coi.2020.03.013)
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, Raiees Andrabi, , Sara T. Richey, Ge Song, Sean Callaghan, Fabio Anzanello, Tyson J. Moyer, Wuhbet Abraham, , et al.
Science Advances, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abh2791

Abstract:
Rationally designed protein subunit vaccines are being developed for a variety of viruses including influenza, RSV, SARS-CoV-2, and HIV. These vaccines are based on stabilized versions of the primary targets of neutralizing antibodies on the viral surface, namely, viral fusion glycoproteins. While these immunogens display the epitopes of potent neutralizing antibodies, they also present epitopes recognized by non-neutralizing or weakly neutralizing (“off-target”) antibodies. Using our recently developed electron microscopy polyclonal epitope mapping approach, we have uncovered a phenomenon wherein off-target antibodies elicited by HIV trimer subunit vaccines cause the otherwise highly stabilized trimeric proteins to degrade into cognate protomers. Further, we show that these protomers expose an expanded suite of off-target epitopes, normally occluded inside the prefusion conformation of trimer, that subsequently elicit further off-target antibody responses. Our study provides critical insights for further improvement of HIV subunit trimer vaccines for future rounds of the iterative vaccine design process.
David A. Spencer, Mariya B. Shapiro, Nancy L. Haigwood,
Frontiers in Public Health, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.690017

Abstract:
Despite substantial progress in confronting the global HIV-1 epidemic since its inception in the 1980s, better approaches for both treatment and prevention will be necessary to end the epidemic and remain a top public health priority. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been effective in extending lives, but at a cost of lifelong adherence to treatment. Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are directed to conserved regions of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer (Env) and can block infection if present at the time of viral exposure. The therapeutic application of bNAbs holds great promise, and progress is being made toward their development for widespread clinical use. Compared to the current standard of care of small molecule-based ART, bNAbs offer: (1) reduced toxicity; (2) the advantages of extended half-lives that would bypass daily dosing requirements; and (3) the potential to incorporate a wider immune response through Fc signaling. Recent advances in discovery technology can enable system-wide mining of the immunoglobulin repertoire and will continue to accelerate isolation of next generation potent bNAbs. Passive transfer studies in pre-clinical models and clinical trials have demonstrated the utility of bNAbs in blocking or limiting transmission and achieving viral suppression. These studies have helped to define the window of opportunity for optimal intervention to achieve viral clearance, either using bNAbs alone or in combination with ART. None of these advances with bNAbs would be possible without technological advancements and expanding the cohorts of donor participation. Together these elements fueled the remarkable growth in bNAb development. Here, we review the development of bNAbs as therapies for HIV-1, exploring advances in discovery, insights from animal models and early clinical trials, and innovations to optimize their clinical potential through efforts to extend half-life, maximize the contribution of Fc effector functions, preclude escape through multiepitope targeting, and the potential for sustained delivery.
Published: 9 April 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Immunomonitoring is the study of an individual’s immune responses over the course of vaccination or infection. In the infectious context, exploring the innate and adaptive immune responses will help to investigate their contribution to viral control or toxicity. After vaccination, immunomonitoring of the correlate(s) and surrogate(s) of protection is a major asset for measuring vaccine immune efficacy. Conventional immunomonitoring methods include antibody-based technologies that are easy to use. However, promising sensitive high-throughput technologies allowed the emergence of holistic approaches. This raises the question of data integration methods and tools. These approaches allow us to increase our knowledge on immune mechanisms as well as the identification of key effectors of the immune response. However, the depiction of relevant findings requires a well-rounded consideration beforehand about the hypotheses, conception, organization and objectives of the immunomonitoring. Therefore, well-standardized and comprehensive studies fuel insight to design more efficient, rationale-based vaccines and therapeutics to fight against infectious diseases. Hence, we will illustrate this review with examples of the immunomonitoring approaches used during vaccination and the COVID-19 pandemic.
, Jeff F. Miller
Published: 1 April 2021
ACS Nano, Volume 15, pp 5793-5818; https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c01845

Abstract:
At the time of preparing this Perspective, large-scale vaccination for COVID-19 is in progress, aiming to bring the pandemic under control through vaccine-induced herd immunity. Not only does this vaccination effort represent an unprecedented scientific and technological breakthrough, moving us from the rapid analysis of viral genomes to design, manufacture, clinical trial testing, and use authorization within the time frame of less than a year, but it also highlights rapid progress in the implementation of nanotechnology to assist vaccine development. These advances enable us to deliver nucleic acid and conformation-stabilized subunit vaccines to regional lymph nodes, with the ability to trigger effective humoral and cellular immunity that prevents viral infection or controls disease severity. In addition to a brief description of the design features of unique cationic lipid and virus-mimicking nanoparticles for accomplishing spike protein delivery and presentation by the cognate immune system, we also discuss the importance of adjuvancy and design features to promote cooperative B- and T-cell interactions in lymph node germinal centers, including the use of epitope-based vaccines. Although current vaccine efforts have demonstrated short-term efficacy and vaccine safety, key issues are now vaccine durability and adaptability against viral variants. We present a forward-looking perspective of how vaccine design can be adapted to improve durability of the immune response and vaccine adaptation to overcome immune escape by viral variants. Finally, we consider the impact of nano-enabled approaches in the development of COVID-19 vaccines for improved vaccine design against other infectious agents, including pathogens that may lead to future pandemics.
Published: 15 March 2021
by MDPI
Viruses, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13030484

Abstract:
Lassa virus (LASV) is a rodent-borne arenavirus circulating in West African regions that causes Lassa fever (LF). LF is normally asymptomatic at the initial infection stage, but can progress to severe disease with multiorgan collapse and hemorrhagic fever. To date, the therapeutic choices are limited, and there is no approved vaccine for avoiding LASV infection. Adenoviral vector-based vaccines represent an effective countermeasure against LASV because of their safety and adequate immunogenicity, as demonstrated in use against other emerging viral infections. Here, we constructed and characterized a novel Ad5 (E1-, E3-) vectored vaccine containing the glycoprotein precursor (GPC) of LASV. Ad5-GPCLASV elicited both humoral and cellular immune responses in BALB/c mice. Moreover, a bioluminescent imaging-based BALB/c mouse model infected with GPC-bearing and luciferase-expressing replication-incompetent LASV pseudovirus was utilized to evaluate the vaccine efficacy. The bioluminescence intensity of immunized mice was significantly lower than that of control mice after being inoculated with LASV pseudovirus. This study suggests that Ad5-GPCLASV represents a potential vaccine candidate against LF.
, , , Sara T. Richey, Ge Song, Sean Callaghan, Fabio Anzanello, Tyson J. Moyer, Wuhbet Abraham, Mariane Melo, et al.
Published: 17 February 2021
Abstract:
Rationally designed protein subunit vaccines are being developed for a variety of viruses including influenza, RSV, SARS-CoV-2 and HIV. These vaccines are based on stabilized versions of the primary targets of neutralizing antibodies on the viral surface, namely viral fusion glycoproteins. While these immunogens display the epitopes of potent neutralizing antibodies, they also present epitopes recognized by non or weakly neutralizing (“off-target”) antibodies. Using our recently developed electron microscopy epitope mapping approach, we have uncovered a phenomenon wherein off-target antibodies elicited by HIV trimer subunit vaccines cause the otherwise highly stabilized trimeric proteins to degrade into cognate protomers. Further, we show that these protomers expose an expanded suite of off-target epitopes, normally occluded inside the prefusion conformation of trimer, that subsequently elicit further off-target antibody responses. Our study provides critical insights for further improvement of HIV subunit trimer vaccines for future rounds of the iterative vaccine design process.
Alexander Klimka, Sonja Mertins, Anne Kristin Nicolai, Liza Marie Rummler, , Saskia Diana Günther, Bettina Tosetti, Oleg Krut,
Published: 18 January 2021
npj Vaccines, Volume 6, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41541-020-00268-2

Abstract:
Staphylococcus aureus represents a serious infectious threat to global public health and a vaccine against S. aureus represents an unmet medical need. We here characterise two S. aureus vaccine candidates, coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (CgoX) and triose phosphate isomerase (TPI), which fulfil essential housekeeping functions in heme synthesis and glycolysis, respectively. Immunisation with rCgoX and rTPI elicited protective immunity against S. aureus bacteremia. Two monoclonal antibodies (mAb), CgoX-D3 and TPI-H8, raised against CgoX and TPI, efficiently provided protection against S. aureus infection. MAb-CgoX-D3 recognised a linear epitope spanning 12 amino acids (aa), whereas TPI-H8 recognised a larger discontinuous epitope. The CgoX-D3 epitope conjugated to BSA elicited a strong, protective immune response against S. aureus infection. The CgoX-D3 epitope is highly conserved in clinical S. aureus isolates, indicating its potential wide usability against S. aureus infection. These data suggest that immunofocusing through epitope-based immunisation constitutes a strategy for the development of a S. aureus vaccine with greater efficacy and better safety profile.
, Payal Pratap, Keara Malone, Sarah K Hilton, Thomas Ketas, Christopher A Cottrell, , John P Moore, , , et al.
Published: 13 January 2021
Abstract:
Mapping polyclonal serum responses is critical to rational vaccine design. However, most high-resolution mapping approaches involve isolating and characterizing individual antibodies, which incompletely defines the polyclonal response. Here we use two complementary approaches to directly map the specificities of the neutralizing and binding antibodies of polyclonal anti-HIV-1 sera from rabbits immunized with BG505 Env SOSIP trimers. We used mutational antigenic profiling to determine how all mutations in Env affected viral neutralization and electron microscopy polyclonal epitope mapping (EMPEM) to directly visualize serum Fabs bound to Env trimers. The dominant neutralizing specificities were generally only a subset of the more diverse binding specificities. Additional differences between binding and neutralization reflected antigenicity differences between virus and soluble Env trimer. Furthermore, we refined residue-level epitope specificity directly from sera, revealing subtle differences across sera. Together, mutational antigenic profiling and EMPEM yield a holistic view of the binding and neutralizing specificity of polyclonal sera.
, Robyn L. Stanfield
Published: 1 January 2021
Journal of Biological Chemistry, Volume 296; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100745

Abstract:
Fifty years ago, the first landmark structures of antibodies heralded the dawn of structural immunology. Momentum then started to build towards understanding how antibodies could recognize the vast universe of potential antigens and how antibody combining sites could be tailored to engage antigens with high specificity and affinity through recombination of germline genes (V,D,J) and somatic mutation. Equivalent groundbreaking structures in the cellular immune system appeared some 15-20 years later and illustrated how processed protein antigens in the form of peptides are presented by MHC molecules to T cell receptors. Structures of antigen receptors in the innate immune system then explained their inherent specificity for particular microbial antigens including lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, small molecules, and specific proteins. These two sides of the immune system act immediately (innate) to particular microbial antigens or evolve (adaptive) to attain high specificity and affinity to a much wider range of antigens. We also include examples of other key receptors in the immune system (cytokine receptors) that regulate immunity and inflammation. Furthermore, these antigen receptors use a limited set of protein folds to accomplish their various immunological roles. The other main players are the antigens themselves. We focus on surface glycoproteins in enveloped viruses including SARS-CoV-2 that enable entry and egress into host cells and are targets for the antibody response. This review covers what we have learned over the past half century about the structural basis of the immune response to microbial pathogens and how that information can be utilized to design vaccines and therapeutics.
Update
Hejun Liu, Nicholas C. Wu, Meng Yuan, Sandhya Bangaru, Jonathan L. Torres, Tom G. Caniels, Jelle van Schooten, Xueyong Zhu, Chang-Chun D. Lee, Philip J.M. Brouwer, et al.
Published: 25 November 2020
Immunity, Volume 53, pp 1272-1280.e5; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.10.023

Abstract:
Summary Most antibodies isolated from individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are specific to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, COVA1-16 is a relatively rare antibody that also cross-neutralizes SARS-CoV. Here, we determined a crystal structure of the COVA1-16 antibody fragment (Fab) with the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) and negative-stain electron microscopy reconstructions with the spike glycoprotein trimer to elucidate the structural basis of its cross-reactivity. COVA1-16 binds a highly conserved epitope on the SARS-CoV-2 RBD, mainly through a long complementarity-determining region (CDR) H3, and competes with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor because of steric hindrance rather than epitope overlap. COVA1-16 binds to a flexible up conformation of the RBD on the spike and relies on antibody avidity for neutralization. These findings, along with the structural and functional rationale for epitope conservation, provide insights for development of more universal SARS-like coronavirus vaccines and therapies.
Iñaki Bastida,
Published: 29 October 2020
Drug Discovery Today: Technologies, Volume 35-36, pp 45-56; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ddtec.2020.09.004

Abstract:
An effective prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine is essential in order to contain the HIV/AIDS global pandemic. The discovery of different broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) in the last decades has enabled the characterization of several minimal epitopes on the HIV envelope (Env) spike, including glycan-dependent fragments. Herein, we provide a brief overview of the progress made on the development of synthetic carbohydrate-based epitope mimics for the elicitation of bnAbs directed to certain regions on Env gp120 protein: the outer domain high-mannose cluster and the variable loops V1V2 and V3. We focus on the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of minimal immunogens and discuss key aspects towards the development of a successful protective vaccine against HIV-1.
Published: 23 October 2020
by MDPI
Viruses, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12111210

Abstract:
HIV-1 vaccine research has obtained an enormous boost since the discovery of many broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) targeting all accessible sites on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). This in turn facilitated high-resolution structures of the Env glycoprotein in complex with bnAbs. Here we focus on gp41, its highly conserved heptad repeat region 1 (HR1), the fusion peptide (FP) and the membrane-proximal external region (MPER). Notably, the broadest neutralizing antibodies target MPER. Both gp41 HR1 and MPER are only fully accessible once receptor-induced conformational changes have taken place, although some studies suggest access to MPER in the close to native Env conformation. We summarize the data on the structure and function of neutralizing antibodies targeting gp41 HR1, FP and MPER and we review their access to Env and their complex formation with gp41 HR1, MPER peptides and FP within native Env. We further discuss MPER bnAb binding to lipids and the role of somatic mutations in recognizing a bipartite epitope composed of the conserved MPER sequence and membrane components. The problematic of gp41 HR1 access and MPER bnAb auto- and polyreactivity is developed in the light of inducing such antibodies by vaccination.
Meng Yuan, Hejun Liu, Nicholas C. Wu,
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Volume 538, pp 192-203; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.10.012

Abstract:
Immediately from the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic, researchers from diverse biomedical and biological disciplines have united to study the novel pandemic virus, SARS-CoV-2. The antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 has been a major focus of COVID-19 research due to its clinical relevance and importance in vaccine and therapeutic development. Isolation and characterization of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 have been accumulating at an unprecedented pace. Most of the SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies to date target the spike (S) protein receptor binding domain (RBD), which engages the host receptor ACE2 for viral entry. Here we review the binding sites and molecular features of monoclonal antibodies that target the SARS-CoV-2 RBD, including a few that also cross-neutralize SARS-CoV.
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities, Volume 36, pp 983-984; https://doi.org/10.1007/s40242-020-0252-6

Abstract:
To investigate the dynamic interaction between antibody and antigen, Fan et al. rationally designed a triangular DNA origami framework to spatially organize the antigenic epitopes at the nanoscale and thus to monitor the transient binding kinetics of the dynamic antigen-antibody complexes at room temperature. This study provides a straightforward, designable and programmable strategy to investigate the transition kinetics of antibody-antigen interaction at a single-molecule level and improve the understanding toward the design of the next-generation antibodies and vaccines for various biomedical applications. This work has been published online in Nature Communications on June 19, 2020.
Published: 3 August 2020
Abstract:
Most antibodies isolated from COVID-19 patients are specific to SARS-CoV-2. COVA1-16 is a relatively rare antibody that also cross-neutralizes SARS-CoV. Here we determined a crystal structure of COVA1-16 Fab with the SARS-CoV-2 RBD, and a negative-stain EM reconstruction with the spike glycoprotein trimer, to elucidate the structural basis of its cross-reactivity. COVA1-16 binds a highly conserved epitope on the SARS-CoV-2 RBD, mainly through a long CDR H3, and competes with ACE2 binding due to steric hindrance rather than epitope overlap. COVA1-16 binds to a flexible up conformation of the RBD on the spike and relies on antibody avidity for neutralization. These findings, along with structural and functional rationale for the epitope conservation, provide a blueprint for development of more universal SARS-like coronavirus vaccines and therapies.
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