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(searched for: doi:10.1186/s40779-020-00245-9)
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Mohammad Fakhrolmobasheri, Sadegh Mazaheri-Tehrani, , , Mehdi Abbasi, Fateme Karimi, Amir Mohamad Mozafari
Biological Trace Element Research pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-021-02997-4

Abstract:
Several studies have indicated that selenium deficiency may be detrimental in the context of various viral disorders, and in the case of COVID-19, several studies have reported heterogeneous results concerning the association of selenium deficiency with the severity of disease. To summarize the available data surrounding the association of body selenium levels with the outcomes of COVID-19, a systematic search was performed in the Medline database (PubMed), Scopus, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Web of Science using keywords including “SARS-CoV-2,” “COVID-19,” and “selenium,” Studies evaluating the association of COVID-19 with body selenium levels were included. Among 1,862 articles viewed in the database search, 10 articles were included after title, abstract, and full-text review. One study was further included after searching the literature again for any newly published articles. Out of 11 included studies, 10 studies measured serum selenium level, and one study investigated urinary selenium level. Three of 10 studies measured serum SELENOP level as well as selenium level. Glutathione peroxidase-3 level in serum was also assessed in one study. The reported outcomes were severity, mortality, and risk of COVID-19. Nine studies indicated that a lower serum selenium level is associated with worse outcomes. Two studies reported no significant association between serum selenium level and COVID-19. In one study, urinary selenium level was reported to be higher in severe and fatal cases compared to non-severe and recovered patients, respectively. In most cases, selenium deficiency was associated with worse outcomes, and selenium levels in COVID-19 patients were lower than in healthy individuals. Thus, it could be concluded that cautious selenium supplementation in COVID-19 patients may be helpful to prevent disease progression. However, randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm this.
, Joel Shor, Rajarishi Sinha, Jinsung Yoon, , Long T. Le, Michael W. Dusenberry, , Kris Popendorf, Arkady Epshteyn, et al.
Published: 8 October 2021
npj Digital Medicine, Volume 4, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41746-021-00511-7

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the global need for reliable models of disease spread. We propose an AI-augmented forecast modeling framework that provides daily predictions of the expected number of confirmed COVID-19 deaths, cases, and hospitalizations during the following 4 weeks. We present an international, prospective evaluation of our models’ performance across all states and counties in the USA and prefectures in Japan. Nationally, incident mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) for predicting COVID-19 associated deaths during prospective deployment remained consistently <8% (US) and <29% (Japan), while cumulative MAPE remained <2% (US) and <10% (Japan). We show that our models perform well even during periods of considerable change in population behavior, and are robust to demographic differences across different geographic locations. We further demonstrate that our framework provides meaningful explanatory insights with the models accurately adapting to local and national policy interventions. Our framework enables counterfactual simulations, which indicate continuing Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions alongside vaccinations is essential for faster recovery from the pandemic, delaying the application of interventions has a detrimental effect, and allow exploration of the consequences of different vaccination strategies. The COVID-19 pandemic remains a global emergency. In the face of substantial challenges ahead, the approach presented here has the potential to inform critical decisions.
Qi Han, Xueyang Li, Zhenghanxiao Wang
Published: 24 June 2021
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.559125

Abstract:
Objective: Athletes are suffering from many uncertainties and hope to achieve the best possible position under the current circumstances of this global coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. In this study, we aimed to address the severity and psychological support for athletes with COVID-19. Methods: We extracted public data and news reports of the up-to-date first seven cases of elite athletes with COVID-19 confirmed in China and made psychological recommendations based on scientific evidence. Results: The severity and mortality in athletes who tested positive to COVID-19 are mild and extremely low. The included cases from different sports are two soccer players, two athletes from ice hockey, and three from fencing. In this study, we adapted well-recognized psychological questionnaires, improvised it for athletes to use under the COVID-19 pandemic, and also provided recommended psychological support. Conclusion: The severity and mortality in Chinese athletes contracted with COVID-19 are mild and low with zero death. Psychological support of any kind from nurses, team medical staff, psychologists, family, and friends through social media and telecommunication should be adopted and can be of great help.
, Shamardan Ezz Eldin S Bazeed, , Abeer S Hassan, Alaa Rashad, Rehab G Hassan, Aida A Abdelmaksoud
International Journal of Nanomedicine, pp 4063-4072; https://doi.org/10.2147/ijn.s313093

Abstract:
Background: Ivermectin is an FDA-approved broad-spectrum anti-parasitic agent that has been shown to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. Objective: We aimed to assess the therapeutic efficacy of ivermectin mucoadhesive nanosuspension intranasal spray in treatment of patients with mild COVID-19. Methods: This clinical trial included 114 patients diagnosed as mild COVID-19. Patients were divided randomly into two age and sex-matched groups; group A comprising 57 patients received ivermectin nanosuspension nasal spray twice daily plus the Egyptian protocol of treatment for mild COVID-19 and group B comprising 57 patients received the Egyptian protocol for mild COVID-19 only. Evaluation of the patients was performed depending on improvement of presenting manifestations, negativity of two consecutive pharyngeal swabs for the COVID-19 nucleic acid via rRT-PCR and assessments of hematological and biochemical parameters in the form of complete blood counts, C-reactive protein, serum ferritin and d-dimer which were performed at presentation and 7 days later. Results: Of the included patients confirmed with mild COVID-19, 82 were males (71.9%) and 32 females (28.1%) with mean age 45.1 ± 18.9. In group A, 54 patients (94.7%) achieved 2 consecutive negative PCR nasopharyngeal swabs in comparison to 43 patients (75.4%) in group B with P = 0.004. The durations of fever, cough, dyspnea and anosmia were significantly shorter in group A than group B, without significant difference regarding the duration of gastrointestinal symptoms. Duration taken for nasopharyngeal swab to be negative was significantly shorter in group A than in group B (8.3± 2.8 days versus 12.9 ± 4.3 days; P = 0.0001). Conclusion: Local use of ivermectin mucoadhesive nanosuspension nasal spray is safe and effective in treatment of patients with mild COVID-19 with rapid viral clearance and shortening the anosmia duration. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT04716569; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04716569.
Aida A. Abdelmaksoud, Ali A. Ghweil, , Alaa Rashad, Ashraf Khodeary, Zaky F. Aref, Mennatallah Ali Abdelrhman Sayed, Mahmoud K. Elsamman, Shamardan E. S. Bazeed
Biological Trace Element Research, Volume 199, pp 4101-4108; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02546-5

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Khaled Alabdulkareem, Amr Kamel, Heba Abdelseed, Yousef Almutairi, Eman Alsalameen
Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 57, pp 21-27; https://doi.org/10.1080/20905068.2020.1870788

Abstract:
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a new strain of betacoronavirus called SARS-CoV-2, which leads to mild to severe symptoms. Micronutrients in blood serum, namely, zinc, iron, copper, and selenium, play essential roles in the human body’s various organs. This study investigates the association between micronutrient levels and the severity of symptoms in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. A cross-section study was conducted during June–August 2020 in Riyadh city among 80 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Within 24 hours of hospital admission, patients have been divided into non-severe and severe cases, and blood samples were drawn from each patient to measure the serum levels of copper, iron “in the form of ferritin,” selenium, and zinc. In both study groups, the mean copper and selenium serum levels were within the normal range, while the mean zinc and iron serum levels were elevated. A statistically significant difference was recorded between non-severe and severe cases regarding serum levels of iron and selenium (331.24 vs. 1174.95 ng/ml and 134 vs. 162 mcg/L, respectively, P < 0.0001). On the other hand, no significant difference was detected between both studied groups regarding serum level of zinc and copper (124.57 vs. 116.37 mcq/L and 18.35 vs. 18.2 mcmol/L, respectively, P > 0.05). There was a significant elevation of selenium and iron serum levels among severe cases compared to non-severe cases of COVID-19. High levels of iron and selenium could be correlated with the disease severity during infection with SARS-CoV-2.
, Karine De Amicis, Alexandra Régia Dantas Brígido, Deborah De Sá Pereira Belfort, Fábio Cetinic Habrum, Fernando Garcia Scarpanti, Iuri Resedá Magalhães, José Roberto De Oliveira Silva Filho, Leon Pablo Cartaxo Sampaio, Maria Tereza Sampaio De Sousa Lira, et al.
Einstein (São Paulo), Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.31744/einstein_journal/2020ao6106

Abstract:
To characterize variables associated with referral to the emergency department following Telemedicine consultation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Cross-sectional retrospective study conducted between March and May 2020, with a sample of 500 adult patients. The inclusion criterion was the manifestation of respiratory symptoms, regardless of type. The mean age of patients was 34.7±10.5 years, and 59% were women. Most patients (62.6%) perceived their own health status as malaise and some (41.4%) self-diagnosed COVID-19. Cough (74.4%), rhinorrhea (65.6%), sore throat (38.6%) and sneezing (20.6%) were the most common infection-related symptoms. Overall, 29.4% and 16% of patients reported dyspnea and chest pain, respectively. The Roth score was calculated for a sizeable number of patients (67.6%) and was normal, moderately altered or severely altered in 83.5%, 10.7% and 5.6% of patients, respectively. The percentage of suspected COVID-19 cases was 67.6%. Of these, 75% were managed remotely and only one quarter referred for emergency assessment. Telemedicine assessment is associated with reclassification of patient's subjective impression, better inspection of coronavirus disease 2019 and identification of risk patients. Referral is therefore optimized to avoid inappropriate in-person assessment, and low-risk patients can be properly guided. Telemedicine should be implemented in the health care system as a cost-effective strategy for initial assessment of acute patients.
Ying-Hui Jin, Qing-Yuan Zhan, Zhi-Yong Peng, Xue-Qun Ren, Xun-Tao Yin, Lin Cai, Yu-Feng Yuan, Ji-Rong Yue, Xiao-Chun Zhang, Qi-Wen Yang, et al.
Published: 4 September 2020
Military Medical Research, Volume 7, pp 1-33; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40779-020-00270-8

Abstract:
The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting more than seventeen million people around the world. Diagnosis and treatment guidelines for clinicians caring for patients are needed. In the early stage, we have issued “A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)”; now there are many direct evidences emerged and may change some of previous recommendations and it is ripe for develop an evidence-based guideline. We formed a working group of clinical experts and methodologists. The steering group members proposed 29 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 covering the following areas: chemoprophylaxis, diagnosis, treatments, and discharge management. We searched the literature for direct evidence on the management of COVID-19, and assessed its certainty generated recommendations using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of ungraded consensus-based statement. Finally, we issued 34 statements. Among them, 6 were strong recommendations for, 14 were weak recommendations for, 3 were weak recommendations against and 11 were ungraded consensus-based statement. They covered topics of chemoprophylaxis (including agents and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) agents), diagnosis (including clinical manifestations, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respiratory tract specimens, IgM and IgG antibody tests, chest computed tomography, chest x-ray, and CT features of asymptomatic infections), treatments (including lopinavir-ritonavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, interferon, remdesivir, combination of antiviral drugs, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, interleukin-6 inhibitors, interleukin-1 inhibitors, glucocorticoid, qingfei paidu decoction, lianhua qingwen granules/capsules, convalescent plasma, lung transplantation, invasive or noninvasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)), and discharge management (including discharge criteria and management plan in patients whose RT-PCR retesting shows SARS-CoV-2 positive after discharge). We also created two figures of these recommendations for the implementation purpose. We hope these recommendations can help support healthcare workers caring for COVID-19 patients.
Published: 1 August 2020
Future Virology, Volume 15, pp 515-524; https://doi.org/10.2217/fvl-2020-0169

Abstract:
Aim: In the diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) technique is often used. We evaluated the compatibility of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR kits containing different gene targets during the pandemic. Materials & methods: Samples were tested by Bio-Speddy® ( RdRp gene) and Diagnovital® ( RdRp + E genes). The correlation between two assays were determined by Deming regression analysis and chi-square analyses. Results: Diagnovital PCR kit showed amplification in a narrow Ct range and conveniently sharper exponential amplification curves than Bio-Speedy PCR kit. While the correlation between the findings of the two kits was apparent even with single gene target, this correlation increased when a secondary biomarker was added to the correlation calculations. Conclusion: We have observed high correlation between different PCR kits, however, using different PCR kits during the pandemic may provide a more accurate diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, since despite correlation there are a number of patients showing contradicting diagnosis.
Alessandro Pancrazzi, Pasqualino Magliocca, Maria Lorubbio, Guendalina Vaggelli, Angelo Galano, Manuela Mafucci, Diletta Duranti, Monica Cortesi, Erica Mazzeschi, Sara Fabbroni, et al.
Published: 21 July 2020
Clinical Biochemistry, Volume 84, pp 87-92; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2020.07.002

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Ali A. Ghweil, , Ashraf Khodeary Mohamed, Ahmed Okasha Mohamed, Haggagy Mansour Mohammed, Ahmed Alyan Abdelazez, , Shamardan Ezzeldin S. Bazeed
Infection and Drug Resistance, pp 2375-2383; https://doi.org/10.2147/idr.s263489

Abstract:
Background: The risk factors, disease characteristics, severity, and mortality of COVID-19 are unclear, particularly in Egypt. Objective: The objective was to analyze the patients’ characteristics, hematological, biochemical, and chest imaging findings among the cohort of patients with COVID-19 in Egypt and also to shed light on the predictors of COVID-19 severity. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 66 patients with COVID-19 in Egypt. Medical history, imaging data (CT chest findings), and measured hematological and biochemical parameters at diagnosis were recorded in the form of complete blood counts and differential counts; CRP, ESR, serum ferritin, creatinine, and liver function tests . Results of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA at diagnosis and during follow up of these patients were also recorded. Results: The study included 36 patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 and 30 patients with severe/critical infection. There was a significant older age among severe (62.6 years old ± 10.1SD) than mild to moderate infection (55.5 ± 10.1) (p˂0.05). Fever, dry cough, dyspnea, and sore throat malaise were highly frequent among COVID-19 patients, while headache and diarrhea were the least frequently occurring manifestations. All included cases (30 patients, 100%) with severe COVID-19 showed crazy-paving appearance (in the form of reticular and/or interlobular septal thickening) with or without GGO. There were significantly lower mean values of WBCs, lymphocytic count, total protein, and albumin among the severely infected than those who had mild to moderate COVID-19 infection, p˂0.05 for all. Additionally, there were significantly higher mean values of CRP, ESR, ferritin, ALT, and AST among patients with severe/critical COVID-19 when compared with those having mild to moderate COVID-19, p˂0.05 for all. Conclusion: Among the studied demographic, clinical, hematological, biochemical, and imaging data, dyspnea, diabetes mellitus, lymphopenia, raised CRP, ESR, ferritin, ALT, AST, low albumin, and presence of CT chest findings could be considered as predictors for COVID-19 severity using binary logistic regression analysis.
, Zhi-Yao Wei, Hai-Yan Qian, Ji Huang, Robert Lodato,
Published: 1 July 2020
Cardiovascular Pathology, Volume 47; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carpath.2020.107228

Abstract:
• The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a major health crisis, with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) having infected over a million people around the world within a few months of its identification as a human pathogen. • Initially, SARS-CoV-2 infects cells in the respiratory system and causes inflammation and cell death. • Subsequently, the virus spreads out and damages other vital organs and tissues, triggering a complicated spectrum of pathophysiological changes and symptoms, including cardiovascular complications. • Acting as the receptor for SARS-CoV entering mammalian cells, angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiovascular cell function. • Diverse clinical manifestations and laboratory abnormalities occur in patients with cardiovascular injury in COVID-19, characterizing the development of this complication, as well as providing clues to diagnosis and treatment. • This review provides a summary of the rapidly appearing laboratory and clinical evidence for the pathophysiology and therapeutic approaches to COVID-19 pulmonary and cardiovascular complications.
, Carole Marbeuf-Gueye, Vy Truong, Marion Giroud, Clémentine Rivière, Khalil Khenissi, Léa Legay, Marie Simonetta, Arben Elezi, Alessandra Principe, et al.
Published: 21 May 2020
Annals of Emergency Medicine, Volume 76, pp 405-412; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2020.05.022

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Ragini Bhatia, , Sandip Kumar Khurana, , , Vivek Kumar Gupta, Raj Kumar Singh,
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology, Volume 14, pp 789-798; https://doi.org/10.22207/jpam.14.spl1.16

Abstract:
Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus initially reported in Wuhan, China, is the causative agent of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Symptoms of the disease comprise of fever, tiredness, dry cough, aches and pains, nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat, diarrhoea and pneumonia at the late stage. SARS-CoV-2 has severely crippled the healthcare system and has caused huge economic losses. Following the outbreak, the SARS-CoV-2 was recognized timely and its genome was sequenced, leading to the development of real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for its detection in clinical samples collected from suspected cases. The management of the pandemic is limited by a number of misconceptions and insufficient information about laboratory testing for SARS-CoV-2 to confirm the disease. This includes a lack of awareness about procedures for the collection, transport, testing, and handling of biological samples for COVID diagnosis. This article provides an overview of the current laboratory diagnostic methods with a purpose to provide information and guidance to laboratories, stakeholders, broader community and especially public health professionals involved in laboratory testing for SARS-CoV-2.
Hongyang Fan, Xiaojia Tang, Yuxia Song, Peipei Liu, Yingzhu Chen
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, pp 1359-1367; https://doi.org/10.2147/ndt.s251173

Abstract:
Abstract: The global spread of COVID-19 has caused a substantial societal burden and become a major global public health issue. The COVID-19 elderly population with hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular diseases are at risk. Mortality rates are highest in these individuals if infected with COVID-19. Although the lungs are the main organs involved in acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by COVID-19 infection, COVID-19 triggers inflammatory and immune mechanisms, inducing a “cytokine storm” that aggravates disease progression and may lead to death. Presently, effective drugs are lacking, although current studies have confirmed that drugs with therapeutic potential include redaciclovir, lopinavir/ritonavir combined with interferon-β, convalescent plasma, and monoclonal antibodies. Currently, the most reasonable and effective way to prevent COVID-19 is to control the source of infection, terminate routes of transmission, and protect susceptible populations. With the rise of COVID-19 in China and worldwide, further prevention, diagnosis, and treatment measures are a critical unmet need. Cerebrovascular disease has high incidence, disability rate, and fatality rate. COVID-19 patient outcomes may also be complicated with acute stroke. This paper summarizes the influence of COVID-19 on cerebrovascular disease and discusses possible pathophysiological mechanisms to provide new angles for the prevention and diagnosis of this disease.
, Mauricio Rivera Díaz, Alfonso Huante Anaya
Revista Latinoamericana de Infectología Pediátrica, Volume 33, pp 191-203; https://doi.org/10.35366/96848

, Jianli Cui, Yunkeung Wong
Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 11, pp 42-45; https://doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.200902.001

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