(searched for: doi:10.1038/s41590-019-0577-9)
Frontiers in Immunology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.635021
Accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) directly contribute to biomacromolecule damage and influence various inflammatory responses. Reactive oxygen species act as mediator between innate and adaptive immune cells, thereby influencing the antigen-presenting process that results in T cell activation. Evidence from patients with chronic granulomatous disease and mouse models support the function of ROS in preventing abnormal autoimmunity; for example, by supporting maintenance of macrophage efferocytosis and T helper 1/T helper 2 and T helper 17/ regulatory T cell balance. The failure of many anti-oxidation treatments indicates that ROS cannot be considered entirely harmful. Indeed, enhancement of ROS may sometimes be required. In a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), absence of NOX2-derived ROS led to higher prevalence and more severe symptoms. In patients with RA, naïve CD4+ T cells exhibit inhibited glycolysis and enhanced pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) activity, leading to ROS exhaustion. In this “reductive” state, CD4+ T cell immune homeostasis is disrupted, triggering joint destruction, together with oxidative stress in the synovium.
EMBO reports; doi:10.15252/embr.202051162
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International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Volume 21; doi:10.3390/ijms21218329
The development of high-throughput sequencing (next-generation sequencing technology (NGS)) and the continuous increase in experimental throughput require the upstream sample processing steps of NGS to be as simple as possible to improve the efficiency of the entire NGS process. The transposition system has fast “cut and paste” and “copy and paste” functions, and has been innovatively applied to the NGS field. For example, the Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin with high throughput sequencing (ATAC-Seq) uses high-throughput sequencing to detect chromatin regions accessible by Tn5 transposase. Linear Amplification via Transposon Insertion (LIANTI) uses Tn5 transposase for linear amplification, haploid typing, and structural variation detection. Not only is it efficient and simple, it effectively shortens the time for NGS sample library construction, realizes large-scale and rapid sequencing, improves sequencing resolution, and can be flexibly modified for more technological innovation.