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(searched for: doi:10.29328/journal.apps.1001018)
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Published: 12 April 2021
Journal of Cannabis Research, Volume 3, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1186/s42238-021-00066-0

Abstract:
Background Cannabis is one of humanity’s oldest crops with several uses, from food to clothing and medicine. It remains one of the most controversial crops whose production, possession, and usage are regulated differently across jurisdictions. Academic research and advocacy have resulted in the redefinition of the legal status of cannabis in several countries. Ghana recently reviewed its laws on cannabis, allowing for the cultivation of industrial hemp. The legislation paves the way for Ghana to benefit from industrial hemp and include it in the agricultural cash crop list. This paper looks at the economic prospects of industrial hemp in the wake of the new law. Methods A systematic electronic research was conducted to identify journal articles, reports, news, blogs, and other relevant materials on cannabis, marijuana, and industrial hemp. The electronic search was done primarily on Google, Google Scholar, Bing, and “Baidu Xueshi” to identify cannabis-related publications. The search was expanded beyond Ghana to find other perspectives on cannabis. The search began in January 2020 on Google using search terms like “cannabis in Ghana” and “which countries have legal cannabis.” Materials on history, financial prospects, industrial uses, and legislations on cannabis and industrial hemp were reviewed. Results Existing research on cannabis in Ghana has focused on the psychotic effects of cannabis other than its industrial aspects, which has potentials for the economy. Industrial hemp has CBD with no psychotic effects and is very useful in making medicine, paper, and textiles. Ghana has both the land and workforce to produce hemp to feed local industries and the international market. Conclusion The new legislation can put Ghana in a position to benefit from the current cannabis industry. Therefore, policymakers should implement a registration regime that would favor local investors and farmers to reduce illegal production. The regulatory framework should establish a well-equipped agency that will supervise production and research into hemp development.
Shahriar S. M. Shakil, Matt Gowan, Kerry Hughes, Nur Kabidul Azam,
Published: 19 March 2021
Journal of Cannabis Research, Volume 3, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1186/s42238-021-00063-3

Abstract:
Background: There is a worldwide interest in the use of Cannabis sativa for biomedicine purposes. Cannabis has ethnomedicinal usage as a natural medicine in Bangladesh and cultivated during the British Empire period for revenues. Objective: Folk medicine practitioners (FMPs) from different districts of Bangladesh have been using Cannabis sativa, but until now there have not been any compiled studies particularly regarding this practice. Hence, this review is an effort to retrieve the traditional usage of Cannabis sativa as a phytomedicine from published ethnomedicinal studies. Methods and materials: Information was searched by using the search terms “ethnomedicinal Cannabis sativa and Bangladesh”; “Bangladesh cannabaceae and ethnomedicinal survey”; “ganja, bhang and folk medicine Bangladesh”; “tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinoid and therapeutic, clinical trial”; and “cannabis and pharmacological/biological” and retrieved from ethnobotanical articles available on PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases. A search of the relevant scientific literature also was conducted to assess the efficacy of the ethnomedicinal usage of Cannabis sativa. Results: While reviewing over 200 ethnomedicinal plants’ survey articles, we found that FMPs of Bangladesh from 12 different districts used Cannabis sativa to treat cited ailments like sleep-associated problems (n=5), neuropsychiatric and CNS problems (n=5), and infections and respiratory problems (n=5) followed by rheumatism, gastrointestinal, gynecological (n=4 each), cancer, sexual, and other ailments including hypertension, headache, itch, increases bile secretion, abortifacient, dandruff, fever, and urinary problems (n=1 each). There are a total of 15 formulations identified from the 11 out of 18 ethnomedicinal plant survey reports. The leaf was the main plant part used (53.8%), followed by root (23%), seed (7.7%) and flower, inflorescence, resin, and all parts 3.8% respectively. Conclusions: Sales and cultivation of Cannabis are illegal at present in Bangladesh, but the use of Cannabis sativa as a natural phytomedicine has been practiced traditionally by folk medicine practitioners of Bangladesh for many years and validated through relevant pharmacological justification. Although Cannabis sativa possesses ethnomedicinal properties in the folk medicine of Bangladesh, it is, furthermore, needed to conduct biological research to consolidate pharmacological justification about the prospects and challenges of Cannabis and cannabinoids’ use in Bangladesh as safer biomedicine in the future.
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