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(searched for: doi:10.4103/ijdvl.ijdvl_1011_18)
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Published: 28 November 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Cancer progression in mycosis fungoides, the most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, occurs in a predictable, sequential pattern that starts from patches and that evolves to plaques and later to tumors. Therefore, unlocking the relationship between the microarchitecture of mycosis fungoides and the clinical counterparts of that microstructure represents important steps for the design of targeted therapies. Using multispectral fluorescent imaging, we show that the progression of mycosis fungoides from plaque to tumor parallels the cutaneous expansion of the malignant CD4+ T cells that express TOX. The density of exhausted BTLA+ CD4+ T cells around malignant CD4+TOX+ cells was higher in tumors than it was in plaques, suggesting that undesired safeguards are in place within the tumor microenvironment that prevent immune activation and subsequent cancer eradication. Overriding the CD47 checkpoint with an intralesional SIRPαFc fusion decoy receptor induced the resolution of mycosis fungoides in patients that paralleled an amplified expansion of NK and CD8+ T cells in addition to a reduction of the exhausted BTLA+ CD4+ T cells that were engaged in promiscuous intercellular interactions. These therapeutic benefits of the CD47 blockade were further unleashed by adjuvant interferon-α, which stimulates cytotoxic cells, underscoring the importance of an inflamed microenvironment in facilitating the response to immunotherapy. Collectively, these findings support CD47 as a therapeutic target in treating mycosis fungoides and demonstrate a synergistic role of interferon-α in exploiting these clinical benefits.
Published: 19 September 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, generally has a favorable clinical course. Early MF typically presents erythematous patches and/or plaques and lasts for many years without affecting the life expectancy. Only limited cases progress to develop skin tumors, with subsequent lymph nodes and rarely visceral organ involvement. One of the clinical problems in early MF is the difficulty in differentiating the disease from benign inflammatory disorders (BIDs), such as atopic dermatitis, chronic eczema, and psoriasis. In some MF cases, clinical and pathological findings are similar to those of BIDs. However, the accurate diagnosis of early MF is quite important, as inappropriate treatment including immunosuppressants can cause unfavorable or even fatal outcomes. This article focuses on general methods and novel tools for diagnosis of early MF.
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