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(searched for: doi:10.1127/ejm/2019/0031-2865)
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Published: 8 August 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Thallium is a highly toxic metal and is predominantly hosted by sulfides associated with low-temperature hydrothermal mineralization. Weathering and oxidation of sulfides generate acid drainage with a high concentration of thallium, posing a threat to surrounding environments. Thallium may also be incorporated into secondary sulfate minerals, which act as temporary storage for thallium. We present a state-of-the-art review on the formation mechanism of the secondary sulfate minerals from thallium mineralized areas and the varied roles these sulfate minerals play in Tl mobility. Up to 89 independent thallium minerals and four unnamed thallium minerals have been documented. These thallium minerals are dominated by Tl sulfosalts and limited to several sites. Occurrence, crystal chemistry, and Tl content of the secondary sulfate minerals indicate that Tl predominantly occurs as Tl(I) in K-bearing sulfate. Lanmuchangite acts as a transient source and sink of Tl for its water-soluble feature, whereas dorallcharite, Tl-voltaite, and Tl-jarosite act as the long term source and sink of Tl in the surface environments. Acid and/or ferric iron derived from the dissolution of sulfate minerals may increase the pyrite oxidation process and Tl release from Tl-bearing sulfides in the long term.
Emil Makovicky, , Anatoly V. Kasatkin, Radek Škoda
The Canadian Mineralogist, Volume 59, pp 533-549; https://doi.org/10.3749/canmin.2000093

Abstract:
The crystal structure of Tl2.36Sb5.98As4.59S17, the lead-free endmember of the chabournéite homeotypic group, from the Tl-As-Sb-rich gold deposit at Vorontsovskoye (the Urals, Russia) was determined and refined to R(obs) 0.099 for 9340 unique observed X-ray reflections. The triclinic unit-cell parameters determined from single-crystal data are as follows: a = 8.63253(19) Å, b = 16.3055(7) Å, c = 21.8196(8) Å, α = 75.094 (3)°, β = 83.631(2)°, γ = 89.303 (2)°, V = 2949.18(18) Å3 (Z = 4), space group . The crystal structure is composed of (001) slabs based on PbS and SnS archetypes, arranged in regular alternation. All Sb(As) coordination polyhedra are (Sb,As)S3+2+(1 or 2) coordination pyramids, in the majority of cases with a mixed Sb-As occupancy in both slab types. Bond-length distributions were studied in detail. The zig-zag boundary between the slabs is composed of a repeating sequence of [100] Tl-Tl, Sb-Sb (1/3 substituted by As), Tl-Tl, and Tl-Sb columns. Thallium forms tricapped trigonal coordination prisms and (Sb,As) forms bicapped prisms. Differences compared to two related structures—parapierrotite and tsygankoite—are specified. Twinning of chabournéite is connected with the (imperfect) order-disorder character of the structure, which is connected with the configurations observed on slab boundaries. The structure refinement of the lead-free Tl-(Sb,As) chabournéite endmember presented in this paper is the best starting point for a restudy of all complexities of the chabournéite homeotypic group.
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