(searched for: doi:10.29328/journal.jsmt.1001047)
International Review for the Sociology of Sport; https://doi.org/10.1177/10126902221081125
Racist stacking is a phenomenon in team sports in which Black players are underrepresented in tactical and leading positions, while they are overrepresented in decentralized and physical positions. In this article, we propose that racist stacking is a type of institutional racism characterized by racist ascriptions incorporated in the daily routines of sport institutions. We explored whether racist stacking happens in soccer in Germany based on these assumptions. The results of an examination of the 36 teams in the male divisions of the first and second Bundesliga in the 2020/2021 season are presented in this article. We discovered patterns in our data that support a theory of racist stacking. White players are more likely to play positions associated with leadership, oversight, responsibility, intelligence, and organization, whereas Black players are more likely to play positions associated with aggressiveness, speed, and instinct. We conclude that, contrary to popular belief, professional sports do not just rely on the competitiveness principle. Instead, some decisions appear to be made on the basis of racist attributions, whether purposefully or accidentally.
Published: 8 April 2021
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18083902
Background: An aspect that influences sport performance is maturation status, since, within the same chronological age group, boys who have advanced maturation outperform their late maturing peers in tests of muscular strength, power, and endurance. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: (i) to investigate the differences in biological maturation and anthropometric and morphological characteristics among three groups of Italian adolescents, two of which were sportive (practicing basketball and football) and one non-sportive, and (ii) to identify the anthropometric and morphological predictors that best discriminate these three groups. Methods: Sixty-one basketball and 62 soccer players and 68 non-sportive youths were measured (mean age = 13.0 ± 1.1 y). Anthropometric characteristics were taken and body mass index, cormic index, body composition parameters, and somatotype were derived. An estimation of maturity status was carried out considering the years from peak height velocity (PHV). Two-way 3 × 3 ANOVAs was performed on all anthropometric characteristics to test the differences within sport groups and maturity status groups. Discriminant function analysis (stepwise criteria) was then applied to anthropometric and body composition variables to classify subjects into the three different sport categories. Results: Differences in anthropometric characteristics were detected among the three groups. For somatotype, differences among all of the considered groups were higher for endomorphy (p < 0.001; effect size = 0.13). Biological maturity influences the differences in the anthropometric characteristics and body composition among subjects of the same chronological age during adolescence. The variables that best discriminated the three groups were represented by body composition parameters, body proportions, and body build. Conclusions: This study confirms that boys who practice sport present healthier body composition parameters, with lower level of fat parameters. The assessment of maturity status is a fundamental factor in explaining anthropometric and body composition differences among peers in this period. Its comprehension may assist coaches and technical staff in optimizing competitive efficiency and monitoring the success of training regimes.