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(searched for: doi:10.1007/s11356-019-06200-z)
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, Anas Adnane, Brahim Ydir, Dris Ben Hmamou, Kenza Khomsi, Hassan Amghar, Youssef Chelhaoui, Jamal Chaoufi, Radouane Leghrib
Published: 20 September 2022
Environmental Science and Pollution Research pp 1-21; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-23084-8

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Ana Clara Neme Pedroso, Igor Cobelo, Rafael Borge, Henrique L. Roig, Matthew Adams, Heresh Amini, Petros Koutrakis, Weeberb J. Réquia
Published: 1 August 2022
Atmospheric Environment, Volume 283; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2022.119182

, Amanda Rehbein, Edmilson Dias de Freitas, Leila Martins, Maria De Fatima Andrade, Eduardo Landulfo
Published: 18 July 2022
Frontiers in Sustainable Cities, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.3389/frsc.2022.883112

Abstract:
Due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many cities implemented strict lockdown to stop the spread of this new disease. Consequently, it was reported lower levels of air pollution due to less human activity outdoors. The changes were registered using surface monitoring stations or satellite observations. However, modeling those environmental changes has remained a challenge because of our limitations in the emissions estimation and also, for the numerical modeling itself. In this study, the vehicular emissions were estimated for March 2020 in the megacity of São Paulo using the Vehicular Emissions INventory model (VEIN). The emissions estimation showed an increment of VOC/NO2 downtown, due to the decrease in circulation of urban transportation and light vehicles. Then, a set of Weather Research and Forecasting models with chemistry (WRF-Chem) simulations were performed with different chemical mechanisms and initial conditions. The modeled diurnal cycles represent the variations observed in March 2020 for the periods pre-lockdown, transition, and lockdown. However, it is imperative to include other sources than vehicular to have a local and comprehensive emissions inventory.
, Vanessa Palermo Bolsoni, Monica Dias de Paula, Gustavo Muniz Dias, Silvia Ribeiro de Souza
Published: 24 June 2022
Frontiers in plant science, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.879039

Abstract:
Plants emit a broad number of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) that can impact urban ozone (O3) production. Conversely, the O3 is a phytotoxic pollutant that causes unknown alterations in BVOC emissions from native plants. In this sense, here, we characterized the constitutive and O3-induced BVOCs for two (2dO3) and four (4dO3) days of exposure (O3 dose 80 ppb) and evaluated the O3 response by histochemical techniques to detect programmed cell death (PCD) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in three Brazilian native species. Croton floribundus Spreng, Astronium graveolens Jacq, and Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart.) JF Macbr, from different groups of ecological succession (acquisitive and conservative), different carbon-saving defense strategies, and specific BVOC emissions. The three species emitted a very diverse BVOC composition: monoterpenes (MON), sesquiterpenes (SEQ), green leaf volatiles (GLV), and other compounds (OTC). C. floribundus is more acquisitive than A. graveolens. Their most representative BVOCs were methyl salicylate—MeSA (OTC), (Z) 3-hexenal, and (E)-2-hexenal (GLV), γ-elemene and (−)-β-bourbonene (SEQ) β-phellandrene and D-limonene (MON), while in A. graveolens were nonanal and decanal (OTC), and α-pinene (MON). Piptadenia gonoachanta is more conservative, and the BVOC blend was limited to MeSA (OTC), (E)-2-hexenal (GLV), and β-Phellandrene (MON). The O3 affected BVOCs and histochemical traits of the three species in different ways. Croton floribundus was the most O3 tolerant species and considered as an SEQ emitter. It efficiently reacted to O3 stress after 2dO3, verified by a high alteration of BVOC emission, the emergence of the compounds such as α-Ionone and trans-ß-Ionone, and the absence of H2O2 detection. On the contrary, A. graveolens, a MON-emitter, was affected by 2dO3 and 4dO3, showing increasing emissions of α-pinene and β-myrcene, (MON), γ-muurolene and β-cadinene (SEQ) and H2O2 accumulation. Piptadenia gonoachanta was the most sensitive and did not respond to BVOCs emission, but PCD and H2O2 were highly evidenced. Our results indicate that the BVOC blend emission, combined with histochemical observations, is a powerful tool to confirm the species’ tolerance to O3. Furthermore, our findings suggest that BVOC emission is a trade-off associated with different resource strategies of species indicated by the changes in the quality and quantity of BVOC emission for each species.
, Laura Gallardo, Mauricio Osses, Néstor Y. Rojas, Thiago Nogueira, Camilo Menares, Maria De Fatima Andrade, Luis C. Belalcázar, Paula Carrasco, Henk Eskes, et al.
Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.2021.00044

Abstract:
This study delves into the photochemical atmospheric changes reported globally during the pandemic by analyzing the change in emissions from mobile sources and the contribution of local meteorology to ozone (O3) and particle formation in Bogotá (Colombia), Santiago (Chile), and São Paulo (Brazil). The impact of mobility reductions (50%–80%) produced by the early coronavirus-imposed lockdown was assessed through high-resolution vehicular emission inventories, surface measurements, aerosol optical depth and size, and satellite observations of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns. A generalized additive model (GAM) technique was also used to separate the local meteorology and urban patterns from other drivers relevant for O3 and NO2 formation. Volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) decreased significantly due to motorized trip reductions. In situ nitrogen oxide median surface mixing ratios declined by 70%, 67%, and 67% in Bogotá, Santiago, and São Paulo, respectively. NO2 column medians from satellite observations decreased by 40%, 35%, and 47%, respectively, which was consistent with the changes in mobility and surface mixing ratio reductions of 34%, 25%, and 34%. However, the ambient NO2 to NOx ratio increased, denoting a shift of the O3 formation regime that led to a 51%, 36%, and 30% increase in the median O3 surface mixing ratios in the 3 respective cities. O3 showed high sensitivity to slight temperature changes during the pandemic lockdown period analyzed. However, the GAM results indicate that O3 increases were mainly caused by emission changes. The lockdown led to an increase in the median of the maximum daily 8-h average O3 of between 56% and 90% in these cities.
Published: 5 January 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Atmosphere
Atmosphere, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13010082

Abstract:
In this work, the possible benefits obtained due to the implementation of evaporative emissions control measures, originating from vehicle fueling processes, on ozone concentrations are verified. The measures studied are: (1) control at the moment when the tank trucks supply the fuel to the gas stations (Stage 1); (2) control at the moment when the vehicles are refueled at the gas stations, through a device installed in the pumps (Stage 2); (3) same as the previous control, but through a device installed in the vehicles (ORVR). The effects of these procedures were analyzed using numerical modeling with the VEIN and WRF/Chem models for a base case in 2018 and different emission scenarios, both in 2018 and 2031. The results obtained for 2018 show that the implementation of Stages 1 and 2 would reduce HCNM emissions by 47.96%, with a consequent reduction of 19.9% in the average concentrations of tropospheric ozone. For 2031, the greatest reductions in ozone concentrations were obtained with the scenario without ORVR, and with Stage 1 and Stage 2 (64.65% reduction in HCNM emissions and 31.93% in ozone), followed by the scenario with ORVR and with Stage 1 and Stage 2 (64.39% reduction in HCNM emissions and 32.98% in ozone concentrations).
Natasha Murgu Valdambrini,
Published: 1 December 2021
by SciELO
Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia, Volume 36, pp 735-747; https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-7786360046

Abstract:
Resumo Neste estudo foi feita uma análise utilizando os dados de monitoramento da qualidade do ar para estações com ultrapassagens do padrão de ozônio, visando caracterizar a distribuição espacial e variação temporal deste poluente, nas principais regiões do Estado de São Paulo entre os anos de 2014 a 2019. O ozônio é um poluente secundário e depende da presença de seus precursores na atmosfera, os óxidos de nitrogênio e os compostos orgânicos voláteis. A Região Metropolitana de São Paulo (RMSP) apresenta o maior número de ultrapassagens do Padrão de Qualidade do Ar (PQAr), principalmente devido à maior emissão dos precursores, um total de 875 ultrapassagens de 2014 a 2019. O Interior apresenta 331 ultrapassagens e a Região Metropolitana da Baixada Santista (RMBS) 24 ultrapassagens no mesmo período. Os anos com mais ultrapassagens são 2014 e 2019 para a RMSP, no verão e na primavera, 2014 e 2017 para o Interior, principalmente na primavera, e 2014, 2015 e 2016 para a RMBS, principalmente no verão. Os picos de ultrapassagem estão associados a condições propícias para a formação do ozônio: baixa precipitação, baixa nebulosidade, alta temperatura e alta incidência de radiação solar. Uma possível alternativa sugere que diminuições nas emissões veiculares sejam consideradas.
Niraj Kumar, Sapna Chourasiya, , Basuki Nath
Published: 30 July 2021
Environmental Claims Journal, Volume 34, pp 170-192; https://doi.org/10.1080/10406026.2021.1957588

Abstract:
Increasing levels of ozone and nitrogen oxides may have damaging effects on the ambient environment, vegetation, public health and climate. Therefore, ozone chemistry is crucial to understand in fast-growing urban regions. This article reports on the determination of ozone and nitrogen oxides in the urban region of Patna, India. The aims of present study involve temporal variations of gaseous pollutants and source analysis. The occurrence of pollutants is dependent on meteorological factors along with local and distant sources. The findings may be useful for policymakers to formulate effective pollution-reducing strategies in the case of the new fast-growing urban city.
Rafael C. G. de Oliveira, Camilla L. Cunha, Alexandre R. Tôrres,
Published: 28 July 2021
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Volume 193, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-09333-2

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Rafaela Squizzato, , , Jorge A. Martins, Rosana Astolfo, Carolyne Bueno Machado, Maria De Fatima Andrade,
Published: 17 March 2021
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science, Volume 4, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41612-021-00173-y

Abstract:
Most of the world’s population lives in rural areas or small to medium-sized cities (totalling 68% of the world population), all of which are impacted by distant air pollution sources. In Brazil, primary pollutant emissions have decreased in urban centres because of government actions, while secondary pollutants such as surface ozone (O3) increased. In addition, O3 and its precursors can be worsening air quality in areas already affected by biofuels production, especially ethanol. We provide almost 3 months of hourly data (June 7, 2019 to August 25, 2019) for concentrations of O3, CO2 and other priority pollutants from a mobile station positioned to distinguish among pollutant plumes (biomass burning, metropolitan area of São Paulo (MASP) and other cities). Although the concentrations of O3 and CO2 were highest in the plumes from biomass burning, the MASP accounted for up to 80% of the O3 concentration in communities over 200 km away.
Karen Hettfleisch, Mariana Azevedo Carvalho, Mara Sandra Hoshida, Luciana Duzolina Manfré Pastro, Silvia Regina Dias Medici Saldiva, Sandra Elisabete Vieira, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira Francisco, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva,
Published: 5 February 2021
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Volume 28, pp 28658-28665; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12353-7

Abstract:
Pollution of the atmosphere is known that may lead to adverse obstetric outcomes, including fetal growth restriction, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia. Such disorders are correlated with imbalances in angiogenic factors, which may also be involved in the pathological mechanism as the pollutants impact placental and maternal physiology. In the first trimester of gestation, this study assessed the outcomes of personal maternal short period exposure to air pollution on soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) and placental growth factor (PLGF) of pregnant women blood concentrations. This was a cross-sectional study, held in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, and conducted with low-risk pregnant women, who carried personal passive nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) monitors for about a few days preceding the ultrasound evaluation, and on this day, the venous blood sample was collected to measure the angiogenic factors sFlt1 and PLGF and their ratio (sFlt1/PLGF) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). By means of multiple regression models, the effect of the studied pollutants on the log-transformed concentrations of the angiogenic factors was evaluated. One hundred thirty-one patients were included. The log of the sFlt1/PLGF ratio increased with rising NO2 levels (p = 0.021 and beta = 0.206), and the log of the PLGF concentration showed a negative correlation with NO2 (p = 0.008 and beta = − 0.234). NO2, an indicator of the levels of primary air pollutants, presented significant positive correlation with an increased sFlt1/PLGF ratio and diminished PLGF levels, which may reflect an antiangiogenic state generated by air pollution exposure.
Published: 4 October 2020
by MDPI
Journal: Atmosphere
Atmosphere, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11101058

Abstract:
Urbanization is a key determinant of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution variability. However, there is a limited understanding of different urbanization factors’ roles in PM2.5 pollution. Using satellite-derived PM2.5 data from 2002 to 2017, we investigated the spatiotemporal evolution and the spatial autocorrelation of PM2.5 pollution in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region. Afterwards, the impacts of three urbanization factors (population urbanization, land urbanization and economic urbanization) on PM2.5 pollution were estimated by a spatial Durbin panel data model (SDM). Obtained results showed that: (i) PM2.5 pollution was larger in the north than in the south of YRD; (ii) Lianyungang and Yancheng cities had significant increasing trends in PM2.5 pollution from 2002 to 2017; (iii) the regional median center of PM2.5 pollution was observed in the Nanjing city, with gradual shifting to the northwest during the 16-year period; (iv) PM2.5 pollution showed significant and positive spatial autocorrelation and spillover effect; (v) population urbanization contributed more to the increase in PM2.5 pollution than land urbanization, while economic urbanization had no significant impact. The present study highlights the impacts of three urbanization factors on PM2.5 pollution which represent valuable and relevant information for air pollution control and urban planning.
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